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Open-File Report 2014–1055

Groundwater-Surface Water Relations in the Fox River Watershed: Insights from Exploratory Studies in Illinois and Wisconsin

By P.C. Mills

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (7.53 MB)Abstract

Exploratory studies were conducted at sites bordering the Fox River in Waukesha, Wisconsin, during 2010 and McHenry, Illinois, during 2011–13. The objectives of the studies were to assess strategies for the study of and insights into the potential for directly connected groundwater and surface-water systems with natural groundwater discharge to streams diverted and (or) streamflow induced (captured) by nearby production-well withdrawals. Several collection efforts of about 2 weeks or less provided information and data on site geology, groundwater and surface-water levels, hydraulic gradients, water-temperature and stream-seepage patterns, and water chemistry including stables isotopes. Overview information is presented for the Waukesha study, and selected data and preliminary findings are presented for the McHenry study.

First posted April 21, 2014

For additional information, contact:
Director, Illinois Water Science Center
U.S. Geological Survey
Suite 100
1201 West University Avenue
Urbana, IL 61801–2347

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Suggested citation:

Mills, P.C., 2014, Groundwater-surface water relations in the Fox River watershed—Insights from exploratory studies in Illinois and Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1055, 20 p.,

ISSN 2331-1258 (online)


Relation to National Assessments of Groundwater Availability and Regional Needs

Fox River Watershed and Study Sites

Preliminary Findings



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