Open-File Report 2015–1085
A two-dimensional model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to assess flow and chemical reaction associated with groundwater discharge through the subterranean estuary representative of coastal salt ponds of southern Cape Cod. The model simulated both the freshwater and saltwater flow systems and accounted for density-dependent flow, tidal fluctuation, and chemical reactivity among oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and ammonia. Not previously incorporated into one model, the interaction of these effects can now be simulated in the subterranean estuary context.
An analysis of the flow system under mean-tide conditions was conducted first to provide the initial conditions for a subsequent analysis that included the effects of tidal fluctuations. Tidal fluctuations were simulated with a repeated couplet that represented a high tide-low tide sequence and alternating locations of head-dependent flux boundaries placed along the simulated seabed, above and below the levels of the respective high and low tides.
Boundary conditions for chemical species included nitrate in recharge, and oxygen and organic matter (including organic nitrogen) in infiltrating solutions of head-dependent boundaries. Reaction chemistry was limited to oxidative degradation of organic matter (including remineralization of ammonia) with oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptors and nitrification of ammonia in the presence of oxygen.
Simulations using the SEAWAT–2000 computer program resulted in two mixing zones—between freshwater and saltwater in a deep saltwater wedge and in an intertidal salt zone, which results from tidal fluctuation. The mixing zones are the principal locations where nitrogen attenuation reactions occurred—between organic matter in the saltwater zones of the aquifer and nitrate in the freshwater zone.
In mean-tide PHT3D model simulations, 15 percent of nitrogen that is recharged was attenuated because of reaction with dissolved organic matter, a denitrification reaction that reduces nitrate to nitrogen gas. When a fluctuating tide was simulated, the amount of recharged nitrogen that was denitrified increased to 20 percent.
Chemical reaction was controlled by the rate of mixing of freshwater and saltwater, which contained the reactants nitrate and dissolved organic matter, respectively, necessary for nitrogen attenuation reactions to take place. Reaction occurred in both the deep saltwater wedge and in an increased denitrification. However, mixing may also have been enhanced partly by numerical dispersion.
First posted June 9, 2015
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Colman, J.A., Carlson, C.S, and Robinson, Clare, 2015, Simulation of nitrogen attenuation in a subterranean estuary, representative of the southern coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1085, 35 p., https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151085.
ISSN 2331-1258 (online)
Sources and Quality of Model Data
Model Development and Approach
Simulation of Nitrogen Attenuation with a Model of Reactive-Solute Transport
Limitations of Analysis
Summary and Conclusions