Professional Paper 1386–A
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The geosphere and the biosphere are the two components of the Earth System; the geosphere is the collective name for the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, and the atmosphere. All parts of the Earth System interact and are interrelated through climatic processes and through the hydrologic cycle and biogeochemical cycles. The Sun is the dominant source of all external energy to the Earth System. Diagram designed by James A. Tomberlin, USGS.