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U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5194

Pesticides Detected in Urban Streams in King County, Washington, 1998-2003

Prepared in cooperation with the
King County Department of Natural Resources

By L.M. Frans

ONLINE ONLY

Download the report (PDF, 3.78 MB)


Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Methods

Pesticide Detections

Effect of Storms on Pesticide Detections

Potential Pesticide Sources

Summary

References Cited

Figures

Figure 1. Location of sites sampled for pesticides and pesticide transforma...

Figure 2. Percentage of samples with detections of pesticides in urban stre...

Figure 3. Number of compounds detected for each class of pesticides at samp...

Figure 4. Percentage of each class of pesticides detected at sampling sites...

Figure 5. Maximum concentrations of pesticides and pesticide transformation...

Figure 6. Percentage of samples with pesticide detections in urban streams ...

Tables

Table 1. Sites sampled for pesticides and pesticide transformation products...

Table 2. Analytes and laboratory reporting levels for pesticides analyzed a...

Table 3. Analytes and quantitation limits for pesticides analyzed at the Wa...

Table 4. Concentrations and precision data for replicate samples with detec...

Table 5. Pesticides and pesticide transformation products detected in water...

Table 6. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide transformation products...


Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey and the King County Department of Natural Resources collected water samples from 14 sites on urban streams in King County during storms and during base flow between 1998 and 2003. The samples were analyzed for the presence of 155 pesticides and pesticide transformation products.

Thirty-nine of the compounds were detected at least once during the study: 20 herbicides, 9 insecticides, 2 fungicides, 6 pesticide transformation products, and 2 other types of compounds. The most widespread compound was 4-nitrophenol, which was detected at all 14 sampling sites. The most frequently detected compound was pentachlorophenol, a fungicide, which occurred in more than 80 percent of the samples. The most frequently detected herbicides were prometon, trichlopyr, 2,4-D, and MCPP, and the most frequently detected insecticides were diazinon and carbaryl. All of the most frequently detected herbicides and insecticides were sold for homeowner use over the timeframe of this study.

More compounds were detected during storms than during base flow, and were detected more frequently and typically at high concentrations during storms. Seven compounds were detected only during storms. Most of the compounds that were detected during storms occurred more frequently during spring storms than during autumn storms.

Introduction

A wide variety of pesticides are applied each year to urban and suburban residential areas in King County, Washington. In order to assess the occurrence and distribution of these pesticides and their transformation products, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the King County Department of Natural Resources collected water samples at 14 sites on streams in the Lake Washington drainage basin in King County between 1998 and 2003 (fig. 1 and table 1). The water samples were analyzed for 155 pesticides and pesticide transformation products (hereafter referred to as pesticides) at three laboratories using three different methods.

Twelve of the sampling sites were small streams that drain generally urban areas, and one site (site 14) was a small stream running out of an urban area with potential agricultural runoff sources. The last site (site 2, Rock Creek) was in a non-urban forested area and was used as a reference site.

The purpose of this report is to describe the types and concentrations of pesticides detected at each sampling site, the effects of storms and base flow on the distribution and concentration of pesticides at the sites, and the potential sources of the pesticides present.

Figure 1

Figure 1. Location of sites sampled for pesticides and pesticide transformation products on urban streams in King County, Washington, 1998–2003.

Table 1. Sites sampled for pesticides and pesticide transformation products in King County, Washington, 1998-2003.

Site No.
(see fig. 1 for
location)
USGS station No. Site name
1 12113499 Taylor Creek
2 12117695 Rock Creek
3 12119600 May Creek
4 12119990 Kelsey Creek
5 12120480 Juanita Creek
6 12121600 Issaquah Creek
7 12121750 Lewis Creek
8 12124500 Bear Creek
9 12125500 Little Bear Creek
10 12126200 North Creek
11 12127000 Swamp Creek
12 12127290 Lyon Creek at 178th
13 12127300 Lyon Creek at Lake Forest Park
14 474243122083001 Unnamed Creek @ 124th

Methods

Water samples for the pesticide analysis were collected at the sampling sites and processed at three laboratories between 1998 and 2003.

Sample Collection and Processing

Samples were collected by either manual sampling or an automated sampler (autosampler). Manual samples were collected using a US DH-81 sampler, as described by Wilde and others (1999a), except at the irrigation return, where the sample bottle was dipped directly into the flow. The samplers can hold either a 1- or 3-liter Teflon® sample bottle, and all parts of the sampler coming into contact with sample water were made of Teflon®. Samples were collected using the equal-width-increment (EWI) method, in which a transect was established across the width of the creek. Water was collected at about 10 equally spaced intervals along the transect by lowering and raising the sampler vertically through the water column. The collected water from each interval then was composited into a glass carboy. Autosamplers were installed to sample runoff during the storms from 2000 to 2003 and were triggered during a rainstorm when the level of the creek rose. When the autosampler was triggered, the water sample was collected from a single point in the midpoint of the stream through a Teflon® tube into a glass carboy (Isco, Inc., 1992). Water in the streams was well mixed at the sampling point.

Except for the autosampler, all equipment used to collect and process samples was cleaned with a 0.2-percent nonphosphate detergent, rinsed with deionized water, rinsed with pesticide-grade methanol, air-dried, wrapped in aluminum foil, and stored in a dust-free environment prior to sample collection (Wilde and others, 1999b). All of the autosampler parts that contacted the sample were washed in detergent, soaked in sulfuric acid for 24 hours, rinsed with deionized water, and stored in plastic bags. All bottles used to collect stream water were rinsed thoroughly with the stream water before sample collection and processing.

The samples in the glass carboys were split using a Teflon® cone splitter into individual samples for analysis at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) in Lakewood, Colorado, the USGS Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory (OGRL) in Lawrence, Kansas (2002 and 2003 samples only), and the Washington State Department of Ecology Manchester Environmental Laboratory in Manchester, Washington, (Wilde and others, 1999c). Samples were processed within 24 hours of collection. The equipment and procedures used to collect and process samples are described by Wilde and others (1999a, 1999c). Samples collected for analysis by the USGS laboratories were filtered through a 0.7-micrometer pore-size, baked glass-fiber filter into baked amber-glass bottles and shipped on ice within 24 hours of filtration. Samples for analysis by the Manchester Environmental Laboratory were collected from the cone splitter in clear glass bottles, but were not filtered. They were stored on ice and transported to the laboratory within 24 hours of processing.

Laboratory Procedures

The samples were analyzed for 155 pesticides and pesticide transformation products (hereafter referred to as pesticides) by the three laboratories. At the NWQL, known quantities of surrogate compounds were added to each water sample and then passed through a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to extract pesticide compounds. The SPE cartridge was packed with porous silica coated with a carbon-18 organic phase. Pesticides retained on the SPE cartridges were eluted with a hexane-isopropanol mixture, which was analyzed for 52 pesticides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitoring (Zaugg and others, 1995, and Madsen and others, 2003) (table 2). Fipronil and its transformation products were added to the analyte list in autumn 2002, so those compounds were analyzed for only in the final sample at Little Bear Creek, North Creek, and the irrigation return, as well as all samples from May, Kelsey, and Taylor Creeks.

At the OGRL, the samples were derivatized (converted to another chemical compound for identification) with 9-fluorenyl-methylchloroformate, passed through an SPE cartridge, and analyzed for three pesticides (table 2) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) (Lee and others, 2002).

Table 2. Analytes and laboratory reporting levels for pesticides analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory or the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory.

[Trade or common name(s): Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. Type of pesticide: H, herbicide; I, insecticide; T, transformation product. –, no trade or common name or registry number; µg/L, microgram per liter]

Pesticide target
analyte
Trade or common
name(s)
Type of
pesticide
Chemical
Abstracts
Service
registry No.
Laboratory
reporting
level (µg/L)
National Water Quality Laboratory
Acetochlor Acenit, Sacenid H 34256-82-1 0.006
Alachlor Lasso H 15972-60-8 .005
Atrazine AAtrex H 1912-24-9 .007
Azinphos-methyl1 Guthion I 86-50-0 .050
Benfluralin Balan, Benefin H 1861-40-1 .010
Butylate Sutan +, Genate Plus H 2008-41-5 .004
Carbaryl1 Sevin, Savit I 63-25-2 .041
Carbofuran1 Furadan I 1563-66-2 .020
Chlorpyrifos Lorsban I 2921-88-2 .005
Cyanazine Bladex H 21725-46-2 .018
DCPA Dacthal H 1861-32-1 .003
4,4'-DDE T 72-55-9 .003
Desethylatrazine1 T 6190-65-4 .006
Desulfinylfipronil2 T .012
Desulfinylfipronil- amide2 T .029
Diazinon Several I 333-41-5 .005
Dieldrin Panoram D-31 I 60-57-1 .009
2,6-Diethylanaline T 579-66-8 .006
Disulfoton Di-Syston I 298-04-4 .021
EPTC Eptam, Eradicane H 759-94-4 .004
Ethalfluralin Sonalan, Curbit EC H 55283-68-6 .009
Ethoprophos Mocap I 13194-48-4 .005
Fipronil2 Regent I 120068-37-3 .016
Fipronil sulfide2 T 120067-83-6 .013
Fipronil sulfone2 T 120068-36-2 .024
Fonofos Dyfonate I 944-22-9 .003
alpha-HCH I 319-84-6 .005
gamma-HCH Lindane I 58-89-9 .004
Linuron Lorox, Linex H 330-55-2 .035
Malathion Several I 121-75-5 .027
Methyl parathion Penncap-M I 298-00-0 .015
Metolachlor Dual, Pennant H 51218-45-2 .013
Metribuzin Lexone, Sencor H 21087-64-9 .006
Molinate Ordram H 2212-67-1 .003
Napropamide Devrinol H 15299-99-7 .007
Parathion Several I 56-38-2 .010
Pebulate Tillam H 1114-71-2 .004
Pendimethalin Prowl, Stomp H 40487-42-1 .022
cis-Permethrin Ambush, Pounce I 54774-45-7 .006
Phorate Thimet, Rampart I 298-02-2 .011
Prometon Pramitol H 1610-18-0 .005
Propyzamide Kerb H 23950-58-5 .004
Propachlor Ramrod H 1918-16-7 .025
Propanil Stampede H 709-98-8 .011
Propargite Comite, Omite I 2312-35-8 .023
Simazine Aquazine, Princep H 122-34-9 .005
Tebuthiuron Spike H 34014-18-1 .016
Terbacil1 Sinbar H 5902-51-2 .034
Terbufos Counter I 13071-79-9 .017
Thiobencarb Bolero H 28249-77-6 .010
Triallate Far-Go H 2303-17-5 .002
Trifluralin Treflan, Trilin H 1582-09-8 .009
Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory
Aminomethyl-phosphonic acid T 1066-51-9 0.1
Glufosinate Finale, Liberty H 77182-82-2 .1
Glyphosate Roundup H 1071-83-6 .1

1Concentrations for these pesticides are qualitatively identified and reported with a J code (estimated value). J codes are used to signify estimated values for all detections that are less than the method detection limit, greater than the highest calibration standard, or otherwise less reliable than average because of sample-specific or compound-specific considerations. All J-coded data are considered to be reliable detections, but with greater than average uncertainty in quantification.

2These compounds were added to the method in autumn 2002.

At the Manchester Environmental Laboratory, pesticides present in the whole-water samples were extracted using methylene chloride and analyzed for 141 targeted pesticides (table 3) using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 8085, which uses capillary-column GC analysis with an atomic emission detector (AED) and ion-trap GC/MS confirmation (Norman Olson, Manchester Environmental Laboratory, written commun., 1999). This method also permitted detection of several non-target compounds on certain occasions. During 2001, a portion of the water from Bear and Issaquah Creeks was filtered at the laboratory to provide a comparison of filtered and unfiltered analyses. Some pesticides were analyzed by both NWQL and Manchester Environmental Laboratory.

Table 3. Analytes and quantitation limits for pesticides analyzed at the Washington State Department of Ecology Manchester Environmental Laboratory.

[Trade or common name(s): Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. Quantitation limit: Limits are approximate and often are different for each sample; these values are representative of a typical sample. Type of Pesticide: F, fungicide; H, herbicide; I, insecticide; T, transformation product; O, other. µg/L, microgram per liter; –, none available]

Pesticide target
analyte
Trade or common
name(s)
Type of
pesticide
Chemical
Abstracts
Service
registry No.
Quantitation
limit (µg/L)
Acifluorfen-sodium Blazer H 62476-59-9 0.17
Alachlor Lasso H 15972-60-8 .26
Aldrin I 309-00-2 .035
Ametryn Evik, Gesapax H 834-12-8 .071
Atraton H 1610-17-9 .21
Atrazine AAtrex H 1912-24-9 .071
Azinphos-methyl Guthion I 86-50-0 .12
Azinphos ethyl Gusathion A I 2642-71-9 .12
Benfluralin Balan, Benefin H 1861-40-1 .11
Bentazon Basagran H 25057-89-0 .063
Bromacil Hyvar, Woprovar H 314-40-9 .28
Bromoxynil Bromanil, Emblem H 1689-84-5 .042
Butachlor Butanox, Machete H 23184-66-9 .25
2-Butoxy-ethanol phosphate1 O 78-51-3
Butylate Sutan +, Genate Plus H 2008-41-5 .14
Caffeine1 O 58-08-2
Captafol Difolatan, Foltaf F 2425-06-1 .21
Captan Orthocide F 133-06-2 .14
Carbophenothion Trithion I 786-19-6 .80
Carboxin Vitavax F 5234-68-4 .78
cis-Chlordane Terminator I 5103-71-9 .035
trans-Chlordane Terminator I 5103-74-2 .035
alpha-Chlordene I 56534-02-2 .043
gamma-Chlordene I 56641-38-4 .035
Chlorothalonil Daconil, Bravo F 1897-45-6 .17
Chlorpropham Taterpex, Sprout Nip H 101-21-3 .28
Chlorpyrifos Lorsban I 2921-88-2 .055
Coumaphos Agridip I 56-72-4 .090
Cyanazine Bladex H 21725-46-2 .11
Cycloate Sabet H 1134-23-2 .14
2,4-D Weed-B-Gon, Weedone H 94-75-7 .042
2,4-DB Venceweed, Butoxone H 94-82-6 .050
DCPA Dacthal H 1861-32-1 .033
2,4'-DDD TDE I 53-19-0 .035
2,4'-DDE T 3424-82-6 .035
4,4'-DDD TDE I 72-54-8 .035
4,4'-DDE T 72-55-9 .035
DDMU T 1022-22-6 .035
2,4'-DDT DDT I 789-02-6 .035
4,4'-DDT DDT I 50-29-3 .035
Demeton-O I 298-03-3 .055
Demeton-S I 126-75-0 .060
Di-allate H 2303-16-4 .27
Diazinon Several I 333-41-5 .06
Dicamba Banvel H 1918-00-9 .042
Dichlobenil Barrier, Casoron H 1194-65-6 .16
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide1 T 2008-58-4
3,5-Dichlorobenzoic Acid H 51-36-5 .042
Dichlorprop 2,4-DP, Seritox 50 H 120-36-5 .046
Dichlorvos DDVP I 62-73-7 .060
Dicofol Kelthane I 115-32-2 .17
Diclofop-methyl Hoelon H 51338-27-3 .063
Dieldrin Panoram D-31 I 60-57-1 .035
Dimethoate Trounce, Roxion I 60-51-5 .060
Dinoseb DNBP H 88-85-7 .063
Dioxathion I 78-34-2 .12
Diphenamid H 957-51-7 .21
Disulfoton Di-Syston I 298-04-4 .045
Diuron Karmex, Direx H 330-54-1 .48
Endosulfan I Several I 959-98-8 .035
Endosulfan II Several I 33213-65-9 .035
Endosulfan sulfate T 1031-07-8 .035
Endrin Hexadrin I 72-20-8 .035
Endrin aldehyde T 7421-93-4 .035
Endrin ketone T 53494-70-5 .035
EPN I 2104-64-5 .075
EPTC Eptam, Eradicane H 759-94-4 .14
Ethalfluralin Sonalan, Curbit EC H 55283-68-6 .11
Ethion Ethiosul I 563-12-2 .055
Ethofumesate1 Nortron, Tramat H 26225-79-6
Ethoprophos Mocap I 13194-48-4 .060
Fenamiphos Nemacur I 22224-92-6 .12
Fenarimol Rubigan F 60168-88-9 .21
Fenitrothion Fenitox, Rothion I 122-14-5 .055
Fensulfothion I 115-90-2 .075
Fenthion Baytex I 55-38-9 .055
Fluridone Sonar H 59756-60-4 .13
Fonofos I 944-22-9 .045
alpha-HCH T 319-84-6 .035
beta-HCH I 319-85-7 .035
delta-HCH I 319-86-8 .035
gamma-HCH Lindane I 58-89-9 .035
Heptachlor Fennotox I 76-44-8 .035
Heptachlor Epoxide T 1024-57-3 .035
Hexazinone Velpar H 51235-04-2 .11
Ioxynil Certrol H H 1689-83-4 .042
Malathion several I 121-75-5 .060
MCPA Metaxon, Kilsem H 94-74-6 .083
MCPP Mecoprop H 93-65-2 .083
Merphos (1 & 2) Folex H 150-50-5 .12
Metalaxyl Apron F 57837-19-1 .48
Methoxychlor Marlate I 72-43-5 .035
Methyl chlorpyrifos Reldan I 5598-13-0 .050
Methyl paraoxon T 950-35-6 .15
Methyl parathion Penncap-M I 298-00-0 .055
Metolachlor Dual, Pennant H 51218-45-2 .28
Metribuzin Lexone, Sencor H 21087-64-9 .071
Mevinphos Phosdrin I 7786-34-7 .075
MGK264 I 113-48-4 .50
Mirex I 2385-85-5 .035
Molinate Ordram H 2212-67-1 .14
Napropamide Devrinol H 15299-99-7 .21
4-Nitrophenol T 100-02-7 .073
cis-Nonachlor I 5103-73-1 .035
trans-Nonachlor I 39765-80-5 .035
Norflurazon Evital, Solicam H 27314-13-2 .14
Oxadiazon1 Ronstar, Order H 19666-30-9
Oxychlordane T 27304-13-8 .035
Oxyfluorfen Goal H 42874-03-3 .28
Parathion several I 56-38-2 .06
Pebulate Tillam H 1114-71-2 .14
Pendimethalin Prowl, Stomp H 40487-42-1 .11
Pentachlorophenol PCP, Penta F 87-86-5 .021
Phorate Thimet, Rampart I 298-02-2 .055
Phosmet Imidan I 732-11-6 .080
Phosphamidon Dixon I 13171-21-6 .18
Picloram Tordon H 1918-02-1 .042
Profluralin H 26399-36-0 .17
Prometon Pramitol H 1610-18-0 .071
Prometryn Caparol, Gesagard H 7287-19-6 .071
Propyzamide Kerb H 23950-58-5 .28
Propachlor Ramrod H 1918-16-7 .17
Propazine Prozinex H 139-40-2 .071
Propetamphos Safrotin I 31218-83-4 .15
Ronnel Fenclorphos I 299-84-3 .055
Simazine Gesatop, Princep H 122-34-9 .072
Sulfotep Bladafum I 3689-24-5 .045
Sulprofos Bolstar I 35400-43-2 .055
2,4,5-T H 93-76-5 .033
2,4,5-TB H 93-80-1 .038
2,4,5-TP Silvex H 93-72-1 .033
Tebuthiuron Spike H 34014-18-1 .11
Temephos Abate I 3383-96-8 .70
Terbacil Sinbar H 5902-51-2 .21
Terbutryn Ternit H 886-50-0 .071
2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorophenol Dowicide 6 F 4901-51-3 .023
2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol Dowicide 6 F 58-90-2 .023
Tetrachlorvinphos Gardona I 961-11-5 .15
Triadimefon Bayleton F 43121-43-3 .18
Triallate Far-Go H 2303-17-5 .18
Tribufos DEF H 78-48-8 .11
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol Dowicide 2 F 95-95-4 .025
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Dowicide 2S F 88-06-2 .025
Triclopyr Garlon, Grazon H 55335-06-3 .035
Trifluralin Treflan, Trilin H 1582-09-8 .11
Vernolate H 1929-77-7 .14

1Non-target analyte.

Results of Quality–Control Assessment

During the study, one equipment blank, five field blanks, and one replicate were analyzed in conjunction with environmental samples to assess bias and analytical variability. Field and equipment blanks were prepared with organic-grade water obtained from the NWQL. The blanks and replicate were subjected to all the same sample handling and processing as the environmental samples.

Pesticides were not detected in the field or equipment blanks. Concentration differences in the set of replicate samples ranged from 0.88 to 4.0 percent, as measured by relative percentage of difference, for samples analyzed by the NWQL and between 0.0 and 47.8 percent for samples analyzed by the Manchester Laboratory (table 4). The percentage of differences seem high for certain compounds, but the concentrations are very low, so even small differences in detectable concentrations can lead to large percentage of differences. Modifications were not made to the data set on the basis of these results.

Quality-control procedures for the NWQL and Manchester Environmental Laboratory included the use of laboratory reagent blanks, spikes, surrogates, internal standards, and calibration as described by Huntamer and others (1992) and by Pritt and Raese (1995).

Table 4. Concentrations and precision data for replicate samples with detections.

[Relative percentage of difference: Calculated as the difference between the two concentrations divided by the mean. J, estimated. µg/L, microgram per liter]

Pesticide Concentration
in replicates
(µg/L)
Relative percentage
of difference
U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory analyses
Simazine 1.03
1.00
2.9
Prometon .114
.113
.88
Diazinon .194
.202
4.0
Carbaryl .121J
.118J
2.5
Washington Department of Ecology
Manchester Environmental Laboratory analyses
2,4-D 0.34
.36
5.7
4-Nitrophenol .1J
.065J
42.4
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide .086J
.14J
47.8
Diazinon .16
.11
37.0
Dicamba .027J
.02J
29.8
Dichlobenil .24
.18
28.6
Dichlorprop .032J
.032J
.0
MCPP .57
.54
5.4
Pentachlorophenol .1
.1
.0
Simazine .25
.17
38.1
Trichlopyr .18
.18
.0

Pesticide Detections

Thirty-nine pesticides and pesticide transformation products were detected in water samples from the urban streams (table 5) (table 6, at back of report). Of the 39 analytes detected, 20 were herbicides, 9 were insecticides, 2 were fungicides, 6 were pesticide transformation products (4-nitrophenol is a transformation product of methyl parathion, 2,6-dichlorobenzamide is a transformation product of diclobenil, aminomethylphosphonic acid is a transformation product of glyphosate, desethylatrazine is a transformation product of atrazine, 4,4'-DDE is a transformation product of 4,4'-DDT, and desulfinylfipronil amide is a transformation product of fipronil), and 2 were other types of compounds (caffeine and 2-butoxy-ethanol phosphate). However, not all compounds that were detected (table 5) were analyzed for in all samples because of changes in the analytical target lists (the addition of glyphosate, fipronil, and their transformation products) or because some of the detected compounds were non-target analytes. Therefore, for the remainder of this report, only those compounds that were analyzed for at all sites are presented in comparisons of detections between sites and the rates of compound detections. Additionally, the filtered and unfiltered results are combined, so a particular compound was counted as only one detection if it was detected in both the filtered and unfiltered samples.

The most widespread compound was 4-nitrophenol, which was detected at all sampling sites (table 5), but was detected in less than one-half the samples collected (fig. 2). The fungicide pentachlorophenol was the most frequently detected compound, and was detected in more than 80 percent of the samples and at all sites except at the forested Rock Creek reference site (site 2). The herbicides prometon, trichlopyr, 2,4-D, and MCPP were present in more than 70 percent of the samples collected and also were the most widespread herbicides, as they were detected at all sites except Rock Creek. Diazinon and carbaryl were the most widespread insecticides and were detected in 12 and 10 of the streams, respectively. They also were the most frequently detected insecticides, present in more than 60 and 30 percent of samples, respectively.

The largest number of compounds at detectable concentrations, 25, was in samples from Juanita Creek (site 5), followed by 22 in samples from the Unnamed Creek (site 14) and 21 in samples from Lyon Creek at 178th (site 12). Only two compounds were detected at the Rock Creek reference site (fig. 3). One or two fungicides and transformation products were detected at all streams except Rock Creek, where fungicides were not detected. Two to three insecticides were detected at most sites; however, five or more insecticides were detected in Juanita Creek, Lyon Creek at 178th, and the Unnamed Creek. Insecticides were not detected in Taylor (site 1) and Rock Creeks. Of the classes of compounds analyzed, the detections of herbicides varied the most among sites, ranging from one at Rock Creek to 15 at Juanita Creek. Between 6 and 12 herbicides were detected at most sites. Herbicides typically make up more than 60 percent of the compounds detected in each stream (fig. 4).

Table 5. Pesticides and pesticide transformation products detected in water samples collected at sites on urban streams in King County, Washington, 1998–2003.

[Sample site: na, not analyzed; ×, detected; –, not detected]

Pesticide Sample site
Unnamed Creek (site 14) Juanita Creek (site 5) Little Bear Creek (site 9) Lyon Creek at 178th (site 12) Lyon Creek at Lake Forest Park (site 13) North Creek (site 10) Lewis Creek (site 7) Kelsey Creek (site 4) Bear Creek (site 8) Issaquah Creek (site 6) Swamp Creek (site 11) May Creek (site 3) Taylor Creek (site 1) Rock Creek (site 2)
4-Nitrophenol × × × × × × × × × × × × × ×
2,4-D × × × × × × × × × × × × ×
MCPP × × × × × × × × × × × × ×
Pentachlorophenol × × × × × × × × × × × × ×
Prometon × × × × × × × × × × × × ×
Trichlopyr × × × × × × × × × × × × ×
Diazinon × × × × × × × × × × × ×
Dicamba × × × × × × × × × × ×
Dichlobenil × × × × × × × × × × ×
Atrazine × × × × × × × × × ×
Carbaryl × × × × × × × × × ×
MCPA × × × × × × × × × ×
Simazine × × × × × × × × ×
Malathion × × × × × × × ×
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide × × × × na × × na × na na na na na
Diuron × × × × × ×
Glyphosate × na × na na × na × na na na × × na
Chlorpyrifos × × × × ×
Metolachlor × × × × ×
Trifluralin × × × × ×
Desethylatrazine × × × ×
Dichlorprop × × × ×
Tebuthiuron × × × ×
Aminomethylphosphonic acid × × na na na × na na na na na na
Bromacil × × ×
Caffeine × na × na na × na na na na na na na na
4,4'-DDD × ×
4,4'-DDE × ×
4,4'-DDT × ×
EPTC × ×
Napropamide × ×
2-butoxy-ethanol phosphate na na na na na na na na na × na na na na
Carbofuran na na na na na na na
Desulfinylfipronil amide na na na na na na na × na na na na
Ethofumesate × na na na na na na na na na na na na na
Fipronil na na na na na na na × na na na na na na
gamma-HCH ×
Metalaxyl ×
Oxadiazon × na na na na na na na na na na na na na

Figure 2

Figure 2. Percentage of samples with detections of pesticides in urban streams in King County, Washington, 1998–2003.

Figure 3

Figure 3. Number of compounds detected for each class of pesticides at sampling sites on urban streams in King County, Washington, 1998–2003.

Figure 4

Figure 4. Percentage of each class of pesticides detected at sampling sites on urban streams in King County, Washington, 1998–2003.

Effect of Storms on Pesticide Detections

More compounds were detected during storms than during base flow, and they were detected more frequently and typically at high concentrations (fig. 5). Seven of the compounds were detected only during storms and two were detected only during base flow. All other compounds were detected under both conditions. For most compounds, the percentage of samples with detections also was higher during storms than during base flow. This is likely due to the increased flushing of the pesticides into the streams during storm events.

Eighteen of 28 compounds that were detected during storms occurred more frequently during spring storms than during autumn storms (fig. 6), and six of the compounds were not detected during autumn storms at all. This pattern of detection likely reflects the timing of pesticide application, because most pesticides are applied more often in the spring as homeowners begin working in their yards.


Figure 5

Figure 5. Maximum concentrations of pesticides and pesticide transformation products detected during storms and during base flow at sampling sites on urban streams in King County, Washington, 1998–2003.

Figure 6

Figure 6. Percentage of samples with pesticide detections in urban streams in King County, Washington, during spring and autumn storms, 1998–2003.

Potential Pesticide Sources

Residential use of pesticides is a possible major source for the most frequently detected compounds in the urban streams. Homeowners typically use pesticides for lawn and shrub care and for insect control around their property. For example, dichlobenil is a commonly used herbicide for weed control around woody shrubs and trees, and the popular insecticide diazinon is used to control ants, aphids, beetles, and other insects. Six of the seven most frequently detected pesticides (2,4-D, diazinon, dichlobenil, MCPP, prometon, and triclopyr) are currently sold for residential use or, in the case of diazinon, were just recently banned (Voss and Embrey, 2000, and Phillip Dickey, Washington Toxics Coalition, written commun., 2004). The other most frequently detected pesticide, pentachlorophenol, likely does not originate from residential application. Pentachlorophenol is a common wood preservative that is used in pressure treatment of wood for uses such as utility poles and railroad ties. Several other pesticides that were detected (carbaryl, dicamba, glyphosate, malathion, MCPA, EPTC) also are sold in King County home and garden stores, and thus are available for residential use (Voss and Embrey, 2000, and Phillip Dickey, Washington Toxics Coalition, written commun., 2004). Although their sale is now banned for homeowner use, chlorpyrifos, which was detected at five sites, was available for retail sale until 2001 and diazinon was available until 2003. Carbaryl sales increased substantially in 2002 as a replacement insecticide for chlorpyrifos and diazinon (Phillip Dickey, Washington Toxics Coalition, written commun., 2004). As a result of the phase out of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, their rates of detection likely will decrease in the future as homeowners use up any remaining stock that they have.

It is difficult to distinguish which of the pesticides detected in Unnamed Creek samples (site 14) are the result of urban application and which are the result of agricultural application because the irrigation-return water contains both urban and agricultural sources of water. The turf farm withdraws water from the Sammamish River for irrigation use and returns the water through a small stream that runs out of an urban area and then feeds into a ditch. However, of the four compounds detected only in the Unnamed Creek sample (ethofumesate, oxadiazon, carbofuran, and metalaxyl), none of them has recorded retail sales in King County and they are most often associated with agricultural applications.

Summary

The U.S. Geological Survey and the King County Department of Natural Resources assessed the occurrence and distribution in urban streams in King County, Washington, of pesticides applied in urban and suburban residential areas. Water samples collected between 1998 and 2003 from 13 sites on urban streams and 1 reference site on a stream in a forested area were analyzed for the presence of 155 pesticides and pesticide transformation products during storms and during base flow.

Samples were collected by either manual sampling or an automated sampler and were analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Laboratory and Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory and the Washington State Department of Ecology Manchester Environmental Laboratory.

Of the 155 compounds analyzed for, 39 were detected at least once during the study. Twenty of the compounds were herbicides, nine were insecticides, two were fungicides, six were transformation products, and two were other types of compounds. Only 4-nitrophenol was detected at all 14 sampling sites. Pentachlorophenol, a fungicide, was the most frequently detected compound, occurring in more than 80 percent of the samples. The most frequently detected herbicides were prometon, trichlopyr, 2,4-D, and MCPP, and the most frequently detected insecticides were diazinon and carbaryl. All of the most frequently detected herbicides and insecticides were sold for homeowner use over the timeframe of this study.

More compounds were detected during storms than during base flow, and seven compounds were detected only during storm events. Compounds also were detected more frequently and typically at high concentrations during storms. Most of the compounds that were detected during storms occurred more frequently during spring storms than during autumn storms.

Residential use of pesticides by homeowners is a possible major source for the most frequently detected compounds in the urban streams. Four compounds that were detected only in samples from the site on an irrigation return are most often associated with agricultural applications rather than residential use.

References Cited

Huntamer, D., Carrell, B., Olson, N., and Solberg, K., 1992, Washington State pesticide monitoring project, final laboratory report: Manchester, WA, Washington State Department of Ecology, Environmental Investigations and Laboratory Services Programs, Manchester Environmental Laboratory, 23 p.

Isco, Inc., 1992, 3700 portable sampler instruction manual, Revision D: Lincoln, Nebr., Isco, Inc., variously paged.

Lee, E.A., Strahan, A.P., and Thurman, E.M., 2002, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group—Determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufosinate in water using online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-454, 13 p.

Madsen, J.E., Sandstrom, M.W., and Zaugg, S.D., 2003, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—A method supplement for the determination of fipronil and degradates in water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-462, 11 p.

Pritt, J.W., and Raese, J.W., 1995, Quality assurance/quality control manual, National Water Quality Laboratory: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-443, 35 p.

Voss, F.D., and Embrey, S.S., 2000, Pesticides detected in urban streams during rainstorms in King and Snohomish Counties, Washington, 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4098, 22 p.

Wilde, F.D., Radtke, D.B., Gibs, J., and Iwatsubo, R.T., eds., 1999a, Collection of water samples, in National field manual for the collection of water-quality data: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations Book 9, chapter A4, 103 p.

Wilde, F.D., Radtke, D.B., Gibs, J., and Iwatsubo, R.T., eds., 1999b, Cleaning of equipment for water sampling, in National field manual for the collection of water-quality data: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations Book 9, chapter A3, 65 p.

Wilde, F.D., Radtke, D.B., Gibs, J., and Iwatsubo, R.T., eds., 1999c, Processing of water samples, in National field manual for the collection of water-quality data: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations Book 9, chapter A5, 128 p.

Zaugg, S.D., Sandstrom, M.W., Smith, S.G., and Fehlberg, K.M., 1995, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of pesticides in water by C-18 solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-181, 49 p.

Table 6. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide transformation products detected in stream water samples during storms and during baseflow at sites on streams in King County, Washington, 1998–2003.

[Locations of sites are shown in figure 1. All concentrations are in micrograms per liter. Concentrations: J, estimated value; M, identified, but value is too low to quantify; N, there is evidence that the analyte is present. <, less than; –, not analyzed]

Bear Creek (site 8)
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
2,4-D, 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol Atrazine,
filtered
Carbaryl,
filtered
filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-14-01 Auto sampler 0.083J 0.076J 0.036J 0.054J 0.0045NJ 0.003J 0.081J
Storm 10-08-01 Auto sampler <.24 .031J <.18 .14J <.007 <.041
Base flow 06-18-01 DH-81 .14J .15J .051J .016J .004J <.041
Base flow 09-17-01 DH-81 <.21 .045J .046J <.31 <.007 <.041
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
Desethylatrazine,
filtered
Diazinon Dichlobenil,
filtered
Diuron,
filtered
Malathion,
filtered
MCPP
filtered unfiltered filtered unfitered
Storm 05-14-01 Auto sampler 0.002J 0.008 0.012J <0.057 0.011J <0.027 0.055J 0.065J
Storm 10-08-01 Auto sampler <.006 .005J .014J .021J <.20 .007J <.49 <.51
Base flow 06-18-01 DH-81 .002J <.005 <.018 .0079J .037NJ <.027 .028J .023J
Base flow 09-17-01 DH-81 <.006 <.005 <.016 <.052 <.16 <.027 <.42 <.36
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
Pentachlorophenol Prometon Simazine Trichlopyr
filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-14-01 Auto sampler 0.009J 0.013J 0.01J 0.001J <0.011 <0.031 <0.13J 0.12J
Storm 10-08-01 Auto sampler .1J .015J .004J <.14 <.011 <.14 .02J .015J
Base flow 06-18-01 DH-81 .0038J .0043J .01J <.022 .074 .065J .0061J .0086J
Base flow 09-17-01 DH-81 <.10 <.09 .004J <.02 .005J <.02 <.18 <.15
Issaquah Creek (site 6)
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
2,4-D 2-Butoxyethanol
phosphate
4-Nitrophenol Atrazine,
filtered
Carbaryl,
filtered
Diazinon
filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-14-01 Auto sampler 0.077J 0.082J 0.029NJ 0.024NJ 0.002J 0.018J <0.005 <0.022
Storm 10-08-01 Auto sampler .4 .41 0.21NJ .18J <.46 <.007 <.041 .011 .025J
Baseflow 06-18-01 DH-81 <.16 <.16 .029J .056J <.007 <.041 <.005 <.017
Baseflow 09-17-01 DH-81 <.17 <.19 .038J .032J <.007 <.041 <.005 <.016
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
Dichlobenil Diuron MCPA MCPP
filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-14-01 Auto sampler <0.053 <0.054 0.24NJ 0.11NJ <0.50 <0.45 0.076J 0.057J
Storm 10-08-01 Auto sampler .08 .21 <.19 <.19 .05J .073J .33J .39J
Baseflow 06-18-01 DH-81 <.042 <.039 <.13 <.13 <.32 <.32 <.32 <.32
Baseflow 09-17-01 DH-81 <.042 <.042 <.13 <.12 <.35 <.38 <.35 <.38
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
Pentachlorophenol Prometon Trichlopyr Trifluralin,
filtered
filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-14-01 Auto sampler 0.023J 0.04J 0.01J 0.0071J 0.037J 0.04J <0.009
Storm 10-08-01 Auto sampler .06J .078J .01J <.031 .06J .063J .004J
Baseflow 06-18-01 DH-81 .0048J .0045J <.01 <.021 .0045J .0055J <.009
Baseflow 09-17-01 DH-81 <.087 <.095 <.01 <.019 <.15 <.16 <.009
Juanita Creek (site 5)
Stream
condition
Date Time Collection
method
2,4-D,
unfiltered
2,6-
Dichloro-
benzamide,
unfiltered
4,4'-
DDD,
unfiltered
4,4'-
DDE,
unfiltered
4,4'-
DDT,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Atrazine,
filtered
Bromacil,
unfiltered
Carbaryl,
filtered
Storm 04-23-98 1340 DH-81 1.0 0.005NJ 0.29 <0.001 <0.079 <0.003
Storm 04-23-98 1930 DH-81 .63 .008NJ .25 .004 <.082 .022J
Storm 04-23-98 2110 DH-81 .59 <.081 .22 <.001 <.081 .017J
Storm 06-24-99 0750 DH-81 .52 .1J <0.011 <0.011 <0.011 .086J <.001 <.079 .023J
Storm 10-08-99 0930 DH-81 .64 .016J <.011 <.011 <.011 <.14 <.001 <.082 .026J
Storm 11-16-99 1030 DH-81 .03J .0028J .0027J .084J .098NJ <.001 <.081 <.003
Baseflow 08-17-99 1040 DH-81 .11 .1J <.011 <.011 .002J <.14 .005 .009J <.003
Stream
condition
Date Time Chlorpyrifos,
unfiltered
Diazinon Dicamba,
unfiltered
Dichlobenil,
unfiltered
Dichlorprop,
unfiltered
Diuron,
unfiltered
EPTC,
filtered
Lindane,
filtered
Malathion,
filtered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 04-23-98 1340 0.242 0.09 0.081J <0.046 <0.16J <0.002 <0.004 0.087
Storm 04-23-98 1930 .276 .034J .54 <.045 <.12J <.010 .034 .073
Storm 04-23-98 2110 .309 .041 .18 <.045 <.12J .009 .03 .071
Storm 06-24-99 0750 0.004NJ .182 0.14 .025J .31 .021J .39NJ <.002 <.004 <.010
Storm 10-08-99 0930 .002NJ .179 .12 .028J .062 <.086 <.12 <.002 <.004 .01
Storm 11-16-99 1030 <.016 .013 .015J <.083 .039 .013NJ <.12 <.002 <.004 <.005
Baseflow 08-17-99 1040 <.016 .014 .021J <.079 .014J <.087 <.12J <.002 <.004 <.005
Stream
condition
Date Time Malathion,
unfiltered
MCPA,
unfiltered
MCPP,
unfiltered
Metolachlor,
filtered
Pentachloro-
phenol,
unfiltered
Prometon Simazine,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Trifluralin,
filtered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 04-23-98 1340 0.38 0.74 <0.002 0.04NJ 0.05 <0.02 <0.005 0.037NJ 0.002J
Storm 04-23-98 1930 .12 .39 <.002 .076 .09 <.02 .014 .17 .003J
Storm 04-23-98 2110 .14 .44 .004 .077 .08 <.02 .026 .1 .003J
Storm 06-24-99 0750 0.004NJ .025NJ .69 .142 .11 .08 .017J <.005 .29 .006
Storm 10-08-99 0930 <.016 .092J .37 <.002 .11 .09 <.02 .007 .26 <.002
Storm 11-16-99 1030 <.016 <.17 .075J <.002 .04J .03 <.02 .056 .04J <.002
Baseflow 08-17-99 1040 <.016 <.16 .028J <.002 .013J .07 .057J .004J .12 <.002
Kelsey Creek (site 4)
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
2,4-D, unfiltered 4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Aminomethyl-
phosphonic acid,
filtered
Carbaryl,
filtered
Desulfinyl-
fipronil amide,
filtered
Diazinon,
filtered
Dicamba,
unfiltered
Dichlobenil,
unfiltered
Storm 10-16-03 Auto sampler 0.19 0.047NJ <0.1 <0.041 <0.009 <0.005 0.014NJ 0.12
Storm 11-18-03 Auto sampler .13J .1NJ <.1 .009J .004J .024 .012NJ <.31J
Baseflow 07-08-03 DH-81 .021NJ <.28 .1 <.041 <.009 <.005 .011NJ <.065
Baseflow 08-05-03 DH-81 .15J <.27 .1 <.041 <.009 <.005 .01J <.063

Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
Fipronil,
filtered
Glyphosate,
filtered
MCPA,
unfiltered
MCPP,
unfiltered
Pentachloro-
phenol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Trifluralin,
filtered
Storm 10-16-03 Auto sampler 0.004J 0.5 0.061J 0.1J 0.042J 0.02 0.12 0.005J
Storm 11-18-03 Auto sampler <.016 .7 .035J .039J .075J .008 .091J .006J
Baseflow 07-08-03 DH-81 <.007 .4 <.33 <.33 .02J <.01 .031J <.009
Baseflow 08-05-03 DH-81 <.007 <.1 <.31 .071J .021J <.01 .033J <.009
Lewis Creek (site 7)
Stream
condition
Date Time Collection
method
2,4-D,
unfiltered
2,6-Dichloro-
benzamide,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Atrazine,
filtered
Chlorpyrifos,
unfiltered
Storm 04-23-98 1340 DH-81 0.027J 0.004NJ 0.069 <0.001
Storm 04-23-98 1550 DH-81 <.041 .016J .021J .002J
Storm 04-23-98 2020 DH-81 .12 .039J .048J .002J
Storm 06-24-99 1110 DH-81 .54 .091J .058NJ <.001 0.004NJ
Stream
condition
Date Time Desethyl-
atrazine,
filtered
Diazinon Dicamba,
unfiltered
EPTC,
filtered
Malathion,
unfiltered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 04-23-98 1340 <0.002 0.238 <0.04 0.005
Storm 04-23-98 1550 <.002 .105 <.041 <.002
Storm 04-23-98 2020 .002J .094 <.04 <.002
Storm 06-24-99 1110 <.002 .073 0.049J .032J <.002 0.002NJ
Stream
condition
Date Time MCPA,
unfiltered
MCPP,
unfiltered
Pentachloro-
phenol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Simazine,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Storm 04-23-98 1340 0.018NJ 0.061NJ 0.016J <0.02 <0.005 <0.034
Storm 04-23-98 1550 .041J .11 <.02 .01J .002J <.034
Storm 04-23-98 2020 .013NJ .13 .021NJ .01J <.005 .022NJ
Storm 06-24-99 1110 .079J .77 .024NJ .01J <.005 .18
Little Bear Creek (site 9)
Stream
condition
Date Time Collection
method
2,4-D,
unfiltered
2,6-
Dichloro-
benzamide,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Aminomethyl-
phosphonic
acid,
filtered
Atrazine,
filtered
Bromacil,
unfiltered
Caffeine,
unfiltered
Carbaryl,
filtered
Desethyl-
atrazine,
filtered
Storm 05-03-00 1100 Auto sampler 0.23 <0.14 0.005 <0.081 0.018J <0.002
Storm 05-03-00 1340 DH-81 .18 <.15 <.005 <.083 <.020 <.002
Storm 10-09-00 1315 Auto sampler .52 .25 <.007 <.095 <.041 <.006
Storm 06-28-02 2145 Auto sampler 3.3 <.33 0.4 <.008 <.086 0.37J .032J <.006
Storm 11-12-02 1230 Auto sampler .37 .23J .1 <.007 <.069 .007J <.006
Baseflow 06-27-00 1130 DH-81 <.100 <.18 <.001 <.089 <.003 .003J
Baseflow 07-10-02 1115 DH-81 .12J <.27 <.1 .002J <.083 <.041 <.006
Baseflow 08-21-02 1130 DH-81 .041J 0.01J <.29 .1 <.007 .018J <.041 <.006
Stream
condition
Date Time Diazinon Dicamba,
unfiltered
Dichlobenil,
unfiltered
Dichlorprop,
unfiltered
Diuron,
unfiltered
Glyphosate,
filtered
Malathion,
filtered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-03-00 1100 0.008 0.01J <0.078 0.029J <0.086 <0.24 <0.005
Storm 05-03-00 1340 .007 .0066J <.083 .011J <.092 <.25 <.005
Storm 10-09-00 1315 <.005 .0098J .012J .034J <.12 <.21 <.027
Storm 06-28-02 2145 .004J <.017J .041NJ .019J .2J <.13 2.0 .016J
Storm 11-12-02 1230 .005 <.014 .032NJ .095 <.17 <.10 .3 <.027
Baseflow 06-27-00 1130 <.002 .0057J <.1 .06 <.11 <.13 <.005
Baseflow 07-10-02 1115 .004J .047J <.16 <.042 <.17 <.13 <.1 <.027
Baseflow 08-21-02 1130 <.005 <.017 .0034NJ <.043 <.18 .084NJ .1 <.027
Stream
condition
Date Time MCPA,
unfiltered
MCPP,
unfiltered
Napropamide,
filtered
Pentachlorophenol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Simazine,
filtered
Tebuthiuron,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Storm 05-03-00 1100 0.02NJ 0.17 <0.003 0.092 0.01J <0.010 0.01 0.18
Storm 05-03-00 1340 <.17 .057J <.003 .027J .01J <.005 .02 .15
Storm 10-09-00 1315 <.23 .20J <.007 .052J .02 <.011 <.02 .74
Storm 06-28-02 2145 <.38 .29J <.007 .072J .01J .011 <.02 2.7
Storm 11-12-02 1230 <.32 .029J .015 .058J .01J <.005 .03 .39
Baseflow 06-27-00 1130 <.20 <.20 <.003 <.050 M .005 .01J <.084
Baseflow 07-10-02 1115 .016J .025J <.007 .0063NJ .01J <.005 .01J 0.048J
Baseflow 08-21-02 1130 .047J .039J <.007 .012J <.01 <.005 <.02 0.031J
Lyon Creek at 178th (site 12) (Replicate sample was collected on 06/24/99; see table 4)
Stream
condition
Date Time Collection
method
2,4-D,
unfiltered
2,6-Dichloro-
benzamide,
unfiltered
4,4'-DDD,
unfiltered
4,4'-DDE,
unfiltered
4,4'-DDT,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Atrazine,
filtered
Carbaryl,
filtered
Storm 05-14-98 0540 DH-81 0.29 0.031J 0.047NJ 0.019 0.012J
Storm 05-14-98 0640 DH-81 .14 .031J .036J .021 .011J
Storm 06-24-99 0800 DH-81 .34 .086J <0.011 <0.011 <0.011 .1J <.001 .121J
Storm 10-08-99 0940 DH-81 .69 .023J <.012 <.012 <.012 <.14 <.001 <.020
Storm 11-16-99 1730 DH-81 .034J .0021J .0021J .041J .12NJ <.001 <.003
Baseflow 08-17-99 1240 DH-81 .015J .051J <.011 <.011 .002J <.15 .004 <.003
Stream
condition
Date Time Chlorpyrifos,
unfiltered
Diazinon Dicamba,
unfiltered
Dichlobenil,
unfiltered
Dichlorprop,
unfiltered
Diuron,
unfiltered
Malathion,
filtered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-14-98 0540 0.305 0.036J 0.061 <0.043 <0.12 0.033
Storm 05-14-98 0640 .425 .02J .063 .0081J <.12 .037
Storm 06-24-99 0800 0.003NJ .194 0.16 .027J .24 .032J .007NJ <.030
Storm 10-08-99 0940 <.017 .073 .045 .016J .31 <.086 <.13 .017
Storm 11-16-99 1730 <.016 .014 .014J <.081 .065 <.089 <.12 <.005
Baseflow 08-17-99 1240 <.016 <.002 <.016 <.085 .033 <.093 <.12J <.005
Stream
condition
Date Time Malathion,
unfiltered
MCPA,
unfiltered
MCPP,
unfiltered
Napropamide,
filtered
Pentachloro-
phenol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Simazine Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-14-98 0540 0.025NJ 0.15 0.016 0.036 0.03 4.73 3.3 0.13
Storm 05-14-98 0640 .026J .13 .014 .042 .04 4.99 3.3 .091
Storm 06-24-99 0800 0.004NJ <.18 .57 <.003 .1 .11 1.03 .25 .18
Storm 10-08-99 0940 <.017 <.16 .52 <.030 .066 .02 .223 <.021J .29
Storm 11-16-99 1730 <.016 <.16 .18 <.003 .098 .02 <.005 <.020J .058J
Baseflow 08-17-99 1240 <.016 <.17 <.17 <.003 .013J .01J .416 .28 .041J
Lyon Creek at Lake Forest Park (site 13)
Stream condition Date Time Collection method 2,4-D, unfiltered 4-Nitrophenol, unfiltered Atrazine Bromacil, unfiltered Carbaryl, filtered Chlorpyrifos, unfiltered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-03-00 0930 Auto sampler 0.2 <0.15 0.017 0.0099J <0.081 0.207J 0.003NJ
Storm 05-03-00 1345 DH-81 .29 <.16 .008 .014NJ .013NJ .164J .003NJ
Storm 10-09-00 1230 Auto sampler .2 .29 <.007 <.071J <.11 <.060 <.022
Baseflow 06-27-00 1115 DH-81 <.11 <.19 <.001 .004NJ .05J <.003 <.018
Stream
condition
Date Time Desethylatrazine,
filtered
Diazinon Dicamba,
unfiltered
Dichlobenil,
unfiltered
MCPA,
unfiltered
MCPP,
unfiltered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-03-00 0930 <0.002 0.059 0.054 <0.083 0.11 0.056J 0.084J
Storm 05-03-00 1345 <.002 .099 .13 <.089 .1 .036NJ .18
Storm 10-09-00 1230 <.006 .044 .031J .026J .071 <.22 .39
Baseflow 06-27-00 1115 .003J .005 .0072J <.11 .013J <.21 <.21
Stream
condition
Date Time Pentachlorophnol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Simazine Tebuthiuron,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Trifluralin,
filtered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-03-00 0930 0.026J 0.03 0.033 0.015J <0.01 0.1 <0.002
Storm 05-03-00 1345 .034J .04 .045 .046 <.01 .061J <.002
Storm 10-09-00 1230 .12 .02 .1 <.028 <.02 .1 <.009
Baseflow 06-27-00 1115 <.054 .01J .008 <.022 .01J <.090 .003J
May Creek (site 3)
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
2,4-D,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Carbaryl,
filtered
Diazinon,
filtered
Dicamba,
unfiltered
Glyphosate,
filtered
Storm 10-16-03 Auto sampler 0.056J 0.047NJ 0.027J 0.007 <0.16 0.2
Storm 11-18-03 Auto sampler .073J .064NJ <.041 <.005 .0075NJ .2
Baseflow 07-08-03 DH-81 <.16 <.28 <.041 <.005 <.16 <.1
Baseflow 08-05-03 DH-81 <.16 <.29 <.041 <.005 <.16 <.1
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
MCPP,
unfiltered
Metolachlor,
filtered
Pentachlorophenol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Storm 10-16-03 Auto sampler 0.047J 0.273 0.066J 0.01J 0.062J
Storm 11-18-03 Auto sampler .05 J .095 .037J .01 .031J
Baseflow 07-08-03 DH-81 <.32 .011J <.08 <.01 <.13
Baseflow 08-05-03 DH-81 <.33 <.013 <.082 <.01 <.14
North Creek (site 10)
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
2,4-D,
unfiltered
2,6-Dichloro-
benzamide,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Atrazine,
filtered
Caffeine,
unfiltered
Carbaryl,
filtered
Storm 06-28-02 Auto sampler 0.47 <0.32 <0.007 0.23J 0.017J
Storm 11-12-02 Auto sampler <.044 .13J <.007 .011J
Baseflow 07-10-02 DH-81 .053J <.30 .002J .010J
Baseflow 08-21-02 DH-81 <.17 0.019J <.30 <.007 <.041
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
Diazinon Dicamba,
unfiltered
Dichlobenil,
unfiltered
Glyphosate,
filtered
Malathion,
filtered
MCPP,
unfiltered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 06-28-02 Auto sampler 0.007 <0.020J 0.035NJ 0.021J 0.1 0.010J 0.24J
Storm 11-12-02 Auto sampler .011 <.014 <.19 .024 <.1 <.027 .091J
Baseflow 07-10-02 DH-81 .009 .076J <.17 .003J <.1 <.027 .037J
Baseflow 08-21-02 DH-81 <.005 .14J <.17 <.045 <.1 <.027 .014NJ
Stream condition Date Collection method Pentachlorophenol, unfiltered Prometon Simazine, filtered Tebuthiuron, filtered Trichlopyr, unfiltered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 06-28-02 Auto sampler 0.11 0.04 <0.025 0.007 <0.02 0.11J
Storm 11-12-02 Auto sampler .058J .02 <.018 .008 <.02 .11J
Baseflow 07-10-02 DH-81 .0098J .02 .04NJ .052 .02J .27
Baseflow 08-21-02 DH-81 .014J <.01 <.022 <.005 <.02 .017NJ
Rock Creek (site 2)
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Dicamba,
unfiltered
Storm 05-14-98 DH-81 <0.071 <0.041
Storm 06-24-99 DH-81 .037NJ .011J
Storm 10-08-99 DH-81 <.14 <.081
Storm 11-16-99 DH-81 <.15 <.083
Baseflow 08-17-99 DH-81 <.16 <.089
Swamp Creek (site 11)
Stream condition Date Time Collection method 2,4-D, unfiltered 4-Nitrophenol, unfiltered Atrazine, unfiltered Diazinon Dichlobenil, unfiltered Malathion
filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered
Storm 05-03-00 1200 Auto sampler 0.058J <0.14 <0.020 0.025 0.019 0.025J 0.032 0.013J
Storm 05-03-00 1500 DH-81 .055J <.15 <.020 .03 .021 .018J .021 .0069J
Storm 10-09-00 1340 Auto sampler .12 .17J <.023 .029 .017J .023J <.027 <.018
Baseflow 06-27-00 1310 DH-81 <.11 <.19 .007NJ .004J .0044J .021J <.005 <.019
Stream
condition
Date Time MCPA,
unfiltered
MCPP,
unfiltered
Pentachlorophenol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Simazine,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Storm 05-03-00 1200 0.026J 0.068J 0.02J 0.02 <0.010 0.12
Storm 05-03-00 1500 .031J .066J .014J .02 <.010 .13
Storm 10-09-00 1340 <.22 .14J .079 .01J <.011 .11
Baseflow 06-27-00 1310 <.21 <.21 <.054 .01J .007 <.09
Taylor Creek (site 1)
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
2,4-D,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Dicamba,
unfiltered
Glyphosate,
filtered
MCPA,
unfiltered
Storm 10-16-03 Auto sampler 0.11J 0.035NJ 0.014NJ 0.2 0.027J
Storm 11-18-03 Auto sampler .049J <.27 .0078NJ .1 .023NJ
Baseflow 07-08-03 DH-81 <.18 <.32 <.18 <.1 <.36
Baseflow 08-05-03 DH-81 <.16 <.28 <.16 <.1 <.33
Stream
condition
Date MCPP,
unfiltered
Metolachlor,
filtered
Pentachlorophenol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Storm 10-16-03 0.077J 0.010J 0.029J 0.19 0.061J
Storm 11-18-03 .056J .007J .091 .03 .045J
Baseflow 07-08-03 <.36 <.013 .011J <.01 <.15
Baseflow 08-05-03 <.33 <.013 .0049J .01J <.14
Unnamed Creek @ 124th (site 14)
Stream
condition
Date Collection
method
2,4-D,
unfiltered
2,6-Dichloro-
benzamide,
unfiltered
4-Nitrophenol,
unfiltered
Aminometyl-
phosphonic
acid,
filtered
Atrazine,
filtered
Caffeine,
unfiltered
Carbaryl,
filtered
Carbofuran
filtered unfiltered
Storm 06-28-02 Dip 0.45 <0.29 0.5 <0.007 0.31J 0.098J <0.020
Storm 11-12-02 Dip .041J .23J .5 <.007 .11J .047J <.020
Baseflow 09-11-00 Dip .28 0.21J <.19 <.006 <.003 .229 0.089NJ
Baseflow 07-10-02 Dip .16J .11J <.30 .8 .003J .064J <.020
Baseflow 08-21-02 Dip .12J .016J <.27 1.3 .004J .035J <.020
Stream
condition
Date Chlorpyrifos Diazinon Dicamba,
unfiltered
Dichlobenil,
unfiltered
Dichlorprop,
unfiltered
Diuron,
unfiltered
filtered unfiltered filtered unfiltered
Storm 06-28-02 0.012 <0.016J 0.005 0.21J <0.16 0.079 0.033J <0.12
Storm 11-12-02 .008 <.014 <.005 <.014 .088J <.036 <.18 <.11
Baseflow 09-11-00 .005 <.019 .586 .47 .38 .041J <.12 .052NJ
Baseflow 07-10-02 .015 .0028J .014 .19J <.17 <.001 <.19 <.13
Baseflow 08-21-02 .015 .0089J <.005 <.015 <.15 .0082J <.17 .075NJ
Stream
condition
Date Ethofumesate,
unfiltered
Glyphosate,
filtered
Malathion MCPA,
unfiltered
MCPP,
unfiltered
Metalaxyl,
unfiltered
filtered unfiltered
Storm 06-28-02 1.2 0.216 0.12J <0.33 0.092J <0.12
Storm 11-12-02 .8 <.027 <.014 .079J .079NJ <.11
Baseflow 09-11-00 2.4NJ <.005 <.019 <.22 <.22 .15
Baseflow 07-10-02 .8 .029 .0045J <.34 <.34 <.13
Baseflow 08-21-02 1.3 <.027 <.015 <.31 .048J <.11
Stream
condition
Date Metolachlor,
filtered
Oxadiazon,
unfiltered
Pentachlorophenol,
unfiltered
Prometon,
filtered
Simazine,
filtered
Tebuthiuron,
filtered
Trichlopyr,
unfiltered
Trifluralin,
filtered
Storm 06-28-02 <0.013 0.13 0.03 <0.005 <0.02 0.31 <0.009
Storm 11-12-02 <.013 .092 .01J .01 .05 .12J <.009
Baseflow 09-11-00 .007 .029NJ .01J <.005 .08J .28 .003J
Baseflow 07-10-02 .004J .021NJ .01J .007 .06 .036J <.009
Baseflow 08-21-02 .007J 0.066J .015NJ .03 .007 .02 .11J <.009

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Send questions or comments about this report to the author, L.M. Frans, (253) 428-3600 ext. 2694.

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