USGS

USGS Michigan Water Science Center

Preliminary Survey of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Pathogenic Escherichia coli from River-Water Samples Collected in Oakland County, Mich., 2003

In cooperation with Oakland County, Michigan

By: Lisa R. Fogarty, Joseph W. Duris, and Stephen S. Aichele

US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5058


Portable Document format (pdf) at
Print-Optimized PDF file (1,083 K Bytes)

If you do not have Adobe Acrobat Reader, then you can download it for free at:
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html
Use of this software product does not imply endorsement by U.S. Government.

Abstract

A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites.
Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum- -lactamase (ESBL)-producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was detected in bacteria from multiple sites in Oakland County but not detected in bacteria from the reference sites. Integrons capable of transferring resistance were detected in isolates from the River Rouge and Clinton River. E. faecium and identified in samples collected from Kearsley Creek and Evans Ditch were resistant to high levels of vancomycin and carried transferable genes responsible for resistance.
Several sites in Oakland County had indicators of pathogenic E. coli in August and (or) September 2003. Two samples from the Clinton River in August tested positive for all three E. coli O157 tests. Both the August and September samples from one River Rouge site were positive for the immunological and molecular assay for E. coli O157. A combination of virulence genes commonly associated with human illness was detected at five sites in August and seven sites in September. Antibiotic-resistance profiles of clinical concern along with genes capable of transferring the resistance were found at several sites throughout Oakland County; samples from many of these sites also contained potentially pathogenic E. coli.

Citation:

Fogarty, L.R., Duris, J.W., Aichele, S.S., 2005, Preliminary Survey of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Pathogenic Escherichia coli from River-Water Samples Collected in Oakland County, Mich., 2003: Date Posted: July 27, 2005, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5058, 34 p.
[https://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2005-5058]

Contents

Abstract
Introduction
Purpose and scope
Description of study area
Background
Bacteria groups studied and their relation to pathogens
Fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli
Enterococci
Overview of antibiotic resistance in bacteria
Intrinsic versus acquired resistance
Environmental versus clinical bacteria antibiotic resistance
Clinically significant antibiotic resistance
Extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)
Using antibiotic resistances to determine sources of fecal contamination
Methods and approach
Sample collection
Quantification of fecal indicator bacteria
Determination of antibiotic resistance
Determination of the presence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli
Determination of the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci
Determination of the presence of antibiotic-resistance genetic elements
Determination of the presence of pathogenic E. coli
Results of bacterial analyses
Fecal indicator bacteria enumeration
Antibiotic resistances
Antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria
Antibiotic-resistant E. coli
Antibiotic-resistant enterococci
Potential sources of resistance
Pathogenic bacteria
Summary and conclusions
Suggestions for future studies
Acknowledgments
References
Glossary
Appendix A: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in river-water samples collected from Oakland County, Mich. in August and September 2003.
Appendix B: Field measurements at sites in Oakland County, Mich., in August and September 2003.
Appendix C: Number of fecal coliform and enterococci isolates resistant to tested antibiotics that were isolated in August 2003 from samples collected in Oakland County, Mich.
Appendix D: Percentage of fecal coliform and enterococci isolates resistant to tested antibiotics that were isolated in September 2003 from samples collected in Oakland County, Mich.

 


Document Accessibility: Adobe Systems Incorporated has information about PDFs and the visually impaired. This information provides tools to help make PDF files accessible. These tools convert Adobe PDF documents into HTML or ASCII text, which then can be read by a number of common screen-reading programs that synthesize text as audible speech. In addition, an accessible version of Acrobat Reader 6.0, which contains support for screen readers, is available. These tools and the accessible reader may be obtained free from Adobe at Adobe Access.


For further information, contact:
 
Jim Nicholas, Director
U.S. Geological Survey
Michigan Water Science Center
6520 Mercantile Way, Suite 5
Lansing, MI 48911-5991
 
mi_dc@usgs.gov
 
or visit our Web site at:
 
http://mi.water.usgs.gov

Back to USGS Michigan Water Science Center Home Page


U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL:
Page Contact Information: Contact USGS
Last modified: Thursday, December 01 2016, 06:40:23 PM
FirstGov button  Take Pride in America button