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U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5187

Lithology and Thickness of the Carmel Formation as Related to Leakage Between the D and N Aquifers, Black Mesa, Arizona

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By Margot Truini and J.P. Macy

ABSTRACT

The Carmel Formation is considered the confining unit between the D aquifer and the underlying N aquifer on Black Mesa, Arizona. Leakage of ground water from the D aquifer into the N aquifer, however, has been detected in the southern part of Black Mesa in recent geochemical studies. In this investigation, borehole-geophysical data and lithologic descriptions from drilling logs were used to relate the thickness and lithology of the Carmel Formation to ground-water leakage in the southern part of Black Mesa. This area of leakage corresponds to the area where the Carmel generally is 120 feet thick or less. The formation is likely a sandy siltstone where leakage has been detected and a clayey siltstone in areas where leakage has not been detected. 

CONTENTS

Abstract
Introduction
Study Methods
Lithology and Thickness of the Carmel Formation as Related to Ground-Water Leakage
Selected References


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