Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5122

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5122

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´╗┐Appendix B. Levels of Information Needed for Constructing Conceptual Models at Different Scales

Table B1. Information needed for constructing conceptual models at regional, subregional, and local scales.

Conceptual model component Regional Aquifer System Analysis, regional-scale model Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, subregional-scale model Idaho National Laboratory facility, local-scale model
Model boundaries Extent and saturated thickness of aquifer Northwestern extent of aquifer Extent of perched ground water
Southwestern extent of waste solutes Locations of local hydraulic boundaries (flowline or distant specified head)
Locations of stable hydraulic boundaries (northeastern zone of steep head gradients, southeastern regional flowline) Local ground-water velocity field
Saturated thickness of aquifer Effective saturated thickness of aquifer (local confining unit below waste solutes)
Hydrogeologic framework Stratigraphy of regional geologic formations and groups Stratigraphy of regional geologic formations and groups Stratigraphy of individual basalt flows, basalt-flow groups, and sedimentary interbeds
Stratigraphy of composite basalt flows and basalt-flow groups
Distribution of hydraulic properties Distribution of major rock types (basalt; silicic rocks; clay, silt, sand, and gravel) Distribution of hydrogeologic units (younger rocks, rocks of intermediate age, sediment, silicic rocks, older rocks) Distribution of hydrogeologic units (local impeding layers or confining units)
Distribution of major rock types (fractured, dense, and altered basalt; silicic rocks; clay, silt, sand, and gravel) Distribution of major rock types (thin or thick pahoehoe basalt flows; near-vent volcanic deposits; dikes; clay, silt, sand, and gravel)
Distribution of local stratigraphic units Distribution of local stratigraphic units
Distribution of subregional geologic settings (rhyolite domes; sedimentary troughs; areas of subsidence, uplift, and dipping beds; volcanic rift zones and vent corridors) Distribution of local geologic settings (vent corridors, sedimentary depositional environments)
Hydrologic fluxes Measured flux (Snake River gains and losses, spring flow) Measured flux (streamflow infiltration from the Big Lost River channel, sinks, playas, and spreading areas) Measured flux (streamflow losses in Big Lost River channel, sinks, playas, and spreading areas)
Estimated flux (ground-water pumpage, irrigation return flow, stream and canal losses, tributary basin underflow, precipitation recharge) Estimated flux (ground-water pumpage, irrigation return flow, ground water from or to adjacent parts of the aquifer, tributary-valley underflow, precipitation recharge, flow from underlying rocks) Estimated flux (ground-water pumpage, ground water from or to adjacent parts of the aquifer, infiltration of precipitation, injection and infiltration of wastewater, water-system leaks, landscape-watering return flow)
Ground-water movement Long-term (20 to 50 years) changes in climate and irrigation practices Episodic and localized streamflow infiltration resulting from short-term (3 to 8 years) changes in climate Thickness and orientation of preferential flowpaths (for example - fractures, lava tubes, etc.)

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