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U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Geological Survey
Michigan Water Science Center

 

Prepared in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality

Screening for the Pesticides Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Metolachlor, and Simazine in Selected Michigan Streams, March–November 2005

U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5077

By Lisa R. Fogarty and Joseph W. Duris

ONLINE ONLY

 


This report is available below as a 46-page PDF for viewing and printing.


Abstract

From March through November 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), did a statewide screening to aid in understanding the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides in Michigan streams. Stream-water samples were collected from 23 sites throughout Michigan. In all, 320 water samples were analyzed by use of rapid immunoassay methods for the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and simazine and the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. On one occasion (June, 2005), atrazine concentrations exceeded the Michigan water-quality value (7.3 micrograms per liter) at the Black River in St. Clair County. Neither chlorpyrifos nor diazinon was detected during April through September. MDEQ detected chlorpyrifos in streams throughout the state in November. Herbicide concentrations were highest in samples influenced by intensive agriculture; however, median herbicide concentrations were similar among agricultural and urban sites. Concentrations of herbicides were very low to undetected in undeveloped areas. Seasonal patterns were also evident during the sampling period. Increased concentrations generally occurred in late spring to early summer. At 11 sites, daily sampling was done every day for 5 days following a rainfall after herbicide application in the area. Substantial changes in concentrations of herbicides—greater than tenfold from the previous day—were observed during the daily sampling. No consistent relation was found between concentration and streamflow. Results of this study may be used to aid in the development of a more comprehensive pesticide monitoring study for the State of Michigan.

 


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Whole report (3.48 MB) - 46 pages (8.5” by 11” paper)

 


 

Suggested Citation:

Fogarty, L.R., and Duris, J.W., 2007, Screening for the pesticides atrazine, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, and simazine in selected Michigan streams, March–November 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5077, 46 p. Date Posted: December 14, 2007: [https://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir20075077/]

Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Purpose and Scope

Background

Herbicides

Insecticides

Previous Studies

Methods and Approach

Description of Study Sites

Sample Collection

Immunoassays

Land-Use Characterization

Statistics and Data Handling

Uncertainties and Analytical Limitations

Pesticide Detections, Effects of Land Use, and Seasonal Patterns of Concentrations

Herbicide Detection

Insecticide Detection

Effects of Land Use

Seasonal Patterns

Results of Intensive Sampling

Comparison with Previous NAWQA Data

Summary and Conclusions

References Cited

Appendix 1. Station name, sample-collection date and time, streamflow and onsite measurements for samples collected in this study

Appendix 2. Station name, sample-collection date and time, and atrazine, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, and simazine results for samples collected in this study

Figures

1. Graph showing sample-collection dates for sites sampled in selected Michigan streams, March–November 2005.
2. Map showing surface-water sampling sites and contributing drainage basin for the Water-Chemistry Monitoring Program sites
      (WCMP) and intensive-study sites, Michigan.

  3–6. Graphs showing:

3. Standard deviation of triplicates for herbicide concentrations.
4. Range of variation in concentration measurement in relation to pesticide concentration.
5. Effects of holding time on atrazine concentrations.
6. Percentage of samples with multiple pesticide detections in selected Michigan streams, March–November, 2005.
7. Map showing sites sampled by Michigan Department of Environmental Quality where chlorpyrifos was detected in July and
     September 2005 or November 2005.
8–17. Graphs showing:
  8. Herbicide concentrations for samples collected in three different land-use types: agricultural (Ag; n=208 samples), undeveloped
      (Und; n=71 samples), and urban (Urb; n=42 samples) from selected Michigan streams, March–November, 2005.
  9. Atrazine concentration in samples collected at each study site, with corresponding land-use percentages from selected
      Michigan streams, March–November, 2005.
10. Metolachlor concentration in samples collected at each study site, with corresponding land-use percentages from selected
      Michigan streams, March–November, 2005.
11. Simazine concentration in samples collected at each study site, with corresponding land-use percentages from selected
      Michigan streams, March–November, 2005.
12. Seasonal patterns in atrazine, metolachlor, and simazine concentrations by land use from selected Michigan streams,
      March–November, 2005.
13. Herbicide concentrations and streamflow in May 2005 for Deer Creek, Grand River at Lansing and at Ionia, and Looking Glass
      River intensive-study sites, Michigan.
14. Herbicide concentrations and streamflow in May 2005 for the Shiawassee River intensive-study sites, Fergus and Owosso,
      Michigan.
15. Herbicide concentrations and streamflow in May 2005 for Mill Creek, Belle River, Pine River, Black River, and Clinton River
      intensive-study sites, Michigan.
16. Pesticide concentrations at the Black River study site (USGS station 04159492), Michigan.
17. Pesticide concentrations at the Clinton River at Sterling Heights study site (USGS station 04161820), Michigan.

Tables

1. Benchmark standards for pesticides selected for this study.
2. Sample-collection site number, name, location, and watershed.
3. Land-use percentages and classification for study sites.
4. Immunoassay detection limits and cross-reactive compounds.
5. Summary statistics for atrazine concentrations.
6. Summary statistics for metolachlor concentrations.
7. Summary statistics for simazine concentrations.

 


For additional information, contact:

U.S. Geological Survey
Michigan Water Science Center
6520 Mercantile Way, Suite 5
Lansing, MI 48911-5991
GS-W-MIlns_DC@usgs.gov

 

or for more information about USGS activities in Michigan, visit the USGS Michigan Water Science Center home page.

 


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