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Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5239

Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5239

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Conversion Factors, Datums, Abbreviations, and Acronyms

Conversion Factors

Multiply By To obtain
cubic foot per second (ft3/s) 0.02832 cubic meter per second (m3/s)
inch (in.) 2.54 centimeter (cm)
foot (ft) 0.3048 meter (m)
gram (g) 0.03527 ounce, avoirdupois (oz)
liter (L) 33.82 ounce, fluid (fl. oz)
mile (mi) 1.609 kilometer (km)
square mile (mi2) 2.590 square kilometer (km2)

Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) may be converted to degrees Fahrenheit (°F) as follows:


River edges are referred to as “left edge” or “right edge” from a frame of reference of looking downstream.

Specific conductance is given in microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (µS/cm at 25°C).

Concentrations of chemical constituents in water are given either in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or micrograms per liter (µg/L).


Vertical coordinate information is referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88).

Horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) and North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83).

Altitude, as used in this report, refers to distance above the vertical datum.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abbreviation or Acronym Meaning
δ15N-NO3- delta-15N (ratio of 15N to 14N, relative to the standard AIR, in units of per mil) of nitrate
δ18O-NO3- delta-18O (ratio of 18O to 16O, relative to the standard VSMOW, in units of per mil) of nitrate
CH4 methane
Cl- chloride
Fe iron
FeS2 pyrite
H2S hydrogen sulfide
mg N/L milligram of nitrogen per liter
Mn manganese
MRL method reporting level
N nitrogen
15N nitrogen-15
NH4+ ammonium
NO2- nitrite
NO3- nitrate
O2 dissolved oxygen
oxic oxygen-reducing; containing > 0.5 milligrams per liter of dissolved oxygen
per mil
redox reduction/oxidation
SO42- sulfate
TMDL total maximum daily load
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
VSMOW Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water

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