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Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5031

Prepared in cooperation with the Department of Geosciences at the University of Arkansas

U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Fayetteville, Arkansas, April 26–29, 2011

Edited by Eve L. Kuniansky

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Karst aquifer systems are present throughout parts of the United States and some of its territories and are developed in carbonate rocks (primarily limestone and dolomite) that span the entire geologic time frame. The depositional environments, diagenetic processes, and post-depositional tectonic events that form carbonate rock aquifers are varied and complex, involving both biological and physical processes that can influence the development of permeability. These factors, combined with the diverse climatic regimes under which karst development in these rocks has taken place result in the unique dual or triple porosity nature of karst aquifers. These complex hydrologic systems often present challenges to scientists attempting to study groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

The concept for developing a Karst Interest Group evolved from the November 1999 National Groundwater Meeting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division. As a result, the Karst Interest Group was formed in 2000. The Karst Interest Group is a loose-knit grass-roots organization of USGS employees devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst hydrology studies.

The mission of the Karst Interest Group is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among USGS scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the Karst Interest Group encourages cooperative studies between the different disciplines of the USGS and other Federal agencies, and university researchers or research institutes.

This fifth workshop is a joint workshop of the USGS Karst Interest Group and University of Arkansas HydroDays workshop, sponsored by the USGS, the Department of Geosciences at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. Additional sponsors are: the National Cave and Karst Research Institute, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas, and Beaver Water District, northwest Arkansas. The majority of funding for the proceedings preparation and workshop was provided by the USGS Groundwater Resources Program, National Cooperative Mapping Program, and the Regional Executives of the Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, South Central and Rocky Mountain Areas. The University of Arkansas provided the rooms and facilities for the technical and poster presentations of the workshop, vans for the field trips, and sponsored the HydroDays banquet at the Savoy Experimental Watershed on Wednesday after the technical sessions.

Revised January 30, 2014

First posted April 14, 2011

For additional information contact:
Eve L. Kuniansky
U.S. Geological Survey
3850 Holcomb Bridge Rd., Suite 160
Norcross, GA 30092-0000
770-409-7725 (fax)

Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); the latest version of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.

Suggested citation:

Kuniansky, E.L., 2011, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Fayetteville, Arkansas, April 26–29, 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5031, 212 p.
Online copies of the proceedings are available at


Introduction and Acknowledgments

Agenda U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group and University of Arkansas Hydro Days Workshops


Paleokarst of the USA: A Brief Review by Arthur N. Palmer and Margaret V. Palmer

Karst in coastal Zones

Influence of Tides and Salinity on the Discharge at the Coastal Spring Creek Springs Group and the Connection to Discharge at the Inland Wakulla Springs, Wakulla County, Florida by J. Hal Davis and Richard J. Verdi

Revised Hydrogeologic Framework for the Floridan Aquifer System in the Northern Coastal Areas of Georgia and Parts of South Carolina by Harold E. Gill and Lester J. Williams

Horizontal Bedding-Plane Conduit Systems in the Floridan Aquifer System and Their Relation to Saltwater Intrusion in Northeastern Florida and Southeastern Georgia by Lester J. Williams and Rick M. Spechler

Geochemistry and Contaminant Transport in Karst Systems

Water-Quality Changes and Dual Response in a Karst Aquifer to the May 2010 Flood in Middle, Tennessee by Michael W. Bradley and Thomas D. Byl

Interaction between Shallow and Deep Groundwater Components at Fay Spring in the Northern Shenandoah Valley Karst by Daniel H. Doctor, Nathan C. Farrar, and Janet S. Herman

Aqueous Geochemical Evidence of Volcanogenic Karstification: Sistema Zacatón, Mexico by Marcus O. Gary, Daniel H. Doctor, and John M. Sharp, Jr.

The Influence of Land Use and Occurrence of Sinkholes on Nitrogen Transport in the Ozark Plateaus in Arkansas and Missouri by Timothy M. Kresse, Phillip D. Hays, Mark R. Hudson, James E. Kaufman

Seasonal Carbon Dynamics in a Northwestern Arkansas Cave: Linking Climate and Cave Conditions by Erik D. Pollock, Katherine J. Knierim, and Phillip D. Hays

Characterization of Urban Impact on Water Quality of Karst Springs in Eureka Springs, Arkansas by Renee Vardy

The Relation Between Dissolved Oxygen and other Physicochemical Properties in Barton Springs, Central Texas by Barbara J. Mahler and Renan Bourgeais

Geochemistry, Water Sources, and Pathways in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in San Antonio, Texas by Lynne Fahlquist, MaryLynn Musgrove, Gregory P. Stanton, and Natalie A. Houston

Temporal Stability of Cave Sediments by Eric W. Peterson, and Kevin Hughes

Evaluating the Stormwater Filters at Mammoth Cave, Kentucky by Ashley West, Rickard Toomey, Michael W. Bradley and Thomas D. Byl

Using Labeled Isotopes to Trace Groundwater Flow Paths in a Northwestern Arkansas Cave by Katherine J. Knierim, Erik D. Pollock, and Phillip D. Hays

Interpreting a Spring Chemograph to Characterize Groundwater Recharge in an Urban, Karst Terrain by Victor Roland, Carlton Cobb, Lonnie Sharpe, Patrice Armstrong, Dafeng Hui, and Thomas D. Byl

Investigation of Nitrate Processing in the Interflow Zone of Mantled Karst, Northwestern Arkansas by Jozef Laincz

Karst Mapping, Dye Tracing, and Geographic Information Systems

Using a Combination of Geographic Information System Techniques and Field Methods to Analyze Karst Terrain in Selected Red River Sub-Watersheds, Tennessee and Kentucky by David E. Ladd

Parallelism in Karst Development Suggested by Quantitative Dye Tracing Results from Springfield, Missouri by Douglas R. Gouzie and Katherine Tomlin

Geologic Controls on Karst Landscapes in the Buffalo National River Area of Northern Arkansas: Insights Gained from Comparison of Geologic Mapping, Topography, Dye Tracers and Karst Inventories by Mark R. Hudson, Kenzie J. Turner, Chuck Bitting, James E. Kaufmann, Timothy M. Kresse and David N. Mott

Determining the Relation between Water Loss from Beaver Creek and Kamas Fish Hatchery Springs, Samak, Utah by Lawrence E. Spangler

Using Geographic Information System to Identify Cave Levels and Discern the Speleogenesis of the Carter Caves Karst Area, Kentucky by Eric Peterson, Toby Dogwiler, and Lara Harlan

Surface Denudation of the Gypsum Plain, West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico by Melinda G. Shaw, Kevin W. Stafford, and B.P. Tate

Karst Program Updates

National Cave and Karst Research Institute: Growing Capabilities and Federal Partnerships by George Veni

The National Karst Map: an Update on its Progress by David J. Weary, and Daniel H. Doctor

Ozarks Plateau Karst

Karst Hydrogeology of the Southern Ozarks by Van Brahana

Overview of The Nature Conservancy Ozark Karst Program by Michael E. Slay, Ethan Inlander, and Cory Gallipeau

Microbial Effects on Ozark Karst-Water Chemistry—Medicinal Implications by John E. Svendsen

Karst Aquifer Systems

An Integrated Approach to Recharge Area Delineation of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma by Jonathan A. Gillip, Rheannon M. Hart, and Joel M. Galloway

Groundwater Piracy in Semi-Arid Karst Terrains by Ronald T. Green, F. Paul Bertetti, and Mariano Hernandez

Ten Relevant Karst Hydrogeologic Insights Gained from 15 Years of In Situ Field Studies at the Savoy Experimental Watershed by Van Brahana

Traps Designed to Document the Occurrence of Groundwater Stygofauna at the Savoy Experimental Watershed, Washington County, Arkansas by Justin R. Mitchell

Assessment of Sinkhole Formation in a Well Field in the Dougherty Plain, near Albany, Georgia by Debbie Warner Gordon

Detecting Karst Conduits through their Effects on Nearby Monitoring Wells by Fred Paillet, and Terryl Daniels

Spring Hydrology of Colorado Bend State Park, Central Texas by Kevin W. Stafford, Melinda G. Shaw, and Jessica L. DeLeon

Analysis of Long-Term Trends in Flow from a Large Spring Complex in Northern Florida by Jack W. Grubbs

Karst Modeling

Modifications to the Conduit Flow Process Mode2 for MODFLOW-2005 by Thomas Reimann, Steffen Birk, and Christoph Rehrl

Comparison of Three Model Approaches for Spring Simulation, Woodville Karst Plain, Florida by Eve L. Kuniansky, Josue J. Gallegos, and J. Hal Davis

Synthesis of Multiple Scale Modeling in the Faulted and Folded Karst of the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia and West Virginia by Kurt J. McCoy, Mark D. Kozar, Richard M. Yager, George E. Harlow, and David L. Nelms

A Hydrograph Recession Technique for Karst Springs with Quickflow Components That Do Not Exhibit Simple, Zero-Order Decay by Darrell W. Pennington and J. Van Brahana

Numerical Evaluations of Alternative Spring Discharge Conditions for Barton Springs, Texas, USA by William R. Hutchison and Melissa E. Hill

Field Trip Guide

Geology and Karst Landscapes of the Buffalo National River Area, Northern Arkansas by Mark R. Hudson, Kenzie J. Turner, and Chuck Bitting

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