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U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5110

Thermal Mapping of Hawaiian Volcanoes with ASTER Satellite Data

By Matthew R. Patrick and Coral-Nadine Witzke

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (5.8 MB) Abstract

Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea’s summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

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Volcano Science Center, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
U.S. Geological Survey
P.O. Box 51, 1 Crater Rim Road
Hawaii National Park, HI 96718-0051
http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/

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Suggested citation:

Patrick, M.R., and Witzke, C.-N., 2011, Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5110, 22 p., available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5110/.



Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Background

Methodology

Results

Interpretation

Conclusions

Limitations and Future Work

Acknowledgments

References


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