USGS

Laboratory Theory and Methods for Sediment Analysis

U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 5, Chapter C1

By Harold P. Guy


Table of Contents

Preface

Abstract

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Functions of a sediment laboratory

Units of measurement and definitions

Theory of particles falling in a fluid

The settling medium

Stokes law for small particles

Drag-Reynolds number

Significant figures for reporting results

Procedure for determining suspended-sediment concentration

Evaporation method

Filtration method

Laboratory forms

Procedure for concentration analysis

Determination of particle-size distribution of suspended sediments

Recommended frequency of analyses

Method of analysis

Limitations

Dispersed settling medium

Native water settling medium

Sample preparation for native water analysis

Procedure for the sieve-pipet method of particle-size analysis

Equipment

Preparation of sample

Recording and decanting

Mechanical dispersion

Sieving

Separation of sand from fines

Dry method

Wet method

Analysis of silt-clay fraction

Splitting

Dispersing

Pipetting

Calculation of results

Total weight of sediment in sample

Calculations

Procedure for the VA tube-pipet method of particle-size analysis

Equipment

Preparation of sample

Separation of sand from fines

Splitting and dispersing

The VA tube analysis

Tube selection

Procedure

Chart interpretation

Procedure for the BW tube-VA tube method of particle-size analysis

The Oden theory

Equipment

Preparation of sample

The BW tube analysis

Dispersion

Withdrawals

Recording of data

The Oden curve

Limitations of BW tube for sand

Determination of particle-size distribution of deposited sediment and soil samples

Equipment and method of handling

In situ measurement

Nominal diameter by immersion

The Zeiss analyzer

Laboratory analysis

Preparation and procedures

Calculation of results

Mechanical analyses of soil samples

Other determinations related to sediment analysis

Organic material

Relationship to particle-size settling media

Procedure of removal

Aggregate destruction

Dissolved solids

Related water-quality analysis

Specific gravity

Specific weight

Selected references

Index

 


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