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Open-File Report 20101098

Guidelines and Standard Procedures for Studies of Ground-Water Quality: Selection and Installation of Wells, and Supporting Documentation

Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4233

By Wayne W. Lapham, Franceska D. Wilde, and Michael T. Koterba

An html version of the abstract is shown below. This report is available as a 2.1 MB pdf file: WRIR 96-4233 


This is the first of a two-part report to document guidelines and standard procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey for the acquisition of data in ground-water-quality studies. This report provides guidelines and procedures for the selection and installation of wells for water-quality studies/*, and the required or recommended supporting documentation of these activities. Topics include (1) documentation needed for well files, field folders, and electronic files; (2) criteria and information needed for the selection of water-supply and observation wells, including site inventory and data collection during field reconnaissance; and (3) criteria and preparation for installation of monitoring wells, including the effects of equipment and materials on the chemistry of ground-water samples, a summary of drilling and coring methods, and information concerning well completion, development, and disposition.


        Purpose and scope
Supporting documentation
        Well file and field folder
        Electronic files
Selection of wells 
        Well-selection criteria 
               Location, design, and construction of wells
               Pump type and access points
               Well capacity
        Site inventory 
               Description of well location and site features
               Determination of well elevation
               Measurement of water levels
               Well-maintenance checks and well-integrity tests
Installation of wells 
        Well-installation criteria
        Well design 
               Screened, open-hole, and multilevel designs
               Well casing and well screens 
                      Casing and screen materials
                      Design of well screen
                      Length of well screen
                      Diameter of casing and screen
        Decontamination of equipment and materials
        Considerations when collecting hydraulic, geophysical, and geologic data 
               Hydraulic data
               Borehole-geophysical surveys
               Geologic materials 
                      Drill cuttings
        Well construction 
               Preconstruction preparations
               Method-selection considerations 
                      Site characteristics
                      Drilling fluids
               Description of well-construction methods 
                      Auger drilling
                      Rotary drilling using water or water-based fluid
                      Air-rotary drilling and casing-driver systems
                      Cable-tool drilling
                      Jet-wash and jet-percussion drilling
                      Direct-push systems and vibration drilling
               Well completion 
                      Filter packs 
                           Primary filter pack
                           Secondary filter pack
                      Well seals 
                           Annular seal
                           Surface seal
                           Characteristics of bentonite and cement as well seals
                      Protective casing
               Well development 
                      Selected methods 
                           Mechanical surging
                           Pumping or overpumping, with backwashing
                           Indirect eduction
                           Jetting and surging with water or air
                      Field screening during development
               Well disposition
Examples of forms cited in this report
Selected references 
               Published reports
               Internal documents

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PDF file of the report: WRI 96-4233

For additional information write to:

U.S. Geological Survey
Office of Water Quality
Mail Stop 412
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, Virginia 20192

Copies of this report may be purchased from:

U.S, Geological Survey
Branch of Information Services
Box 25286
Denver Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225-0286

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