By Christopher D. Farrar, John M. Neil, and James F. Howle
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Water-Resources Investigations report 98-4217
Sacramento, California 1999
Figure 4A. Tree-kill area near the base of the south face of Mammoth Mountain. A high percentage of the trees in the foreground are dead due to high CO 2 concentration in the root zone of the soil. Trees higher on the mountain are unaffected. (Looking north from the northwest shore of Horseshoe Lake.)
Figure 4B. Tree-kill areas on the southwest side of Mammoth Mountain (lower right of photo) and along the northwest shore of Horshoe Lake (near center of photo). (Looking south from near the top of Mammoth Mountain.)
Tree-kill near the west shore of Horseshoe Lake, where CO2 in the
soil has killed nearly 100 percent of the trees in a 16 hectare area.