Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water

U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 2254

By John D. Hem

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Section available in pdf:

Section1--1.5 MB




Properties and structure of water

Composition of the Earth's crust

The hydrosphere

The atmosphere


Section 2--3.7 MB

Principles and processes controlling composition of natural water


Section 3--1.7 MB

Evaluation of water composition


Section 4--(1st half)5.1 MB -- (2nd half) 6.7 MB

Significance of properties and constituents reported in water analyses


Section 5--2.8 MB

Organization and study of water-analysis data


Section 6--1.6 MB

Relation of water quality to lithology


Section 7--650 KB

Influence of activities of humans


Section 8--1.1 MB

Application of water-quality measurements to quantitative hydrology


Section 9--1.1 MB

Relation of quality of water to use


Section 10--834 KB

Water-management concepts and problems


Section 11--3 MB

Selected references





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