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U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-041

A Laboratory Manual for X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Quartz x-ray powder diffraction pattern

Table of Contents Introduction X-Ray Diffraction Clay Minerals Flow Diagrams

Preparatory and Interpretive Procedures

Table of Contents
Acetic Acid Treatment for the Removal of Carbonates
Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment for the Removal of Organics
Separation of Silt and Clay by Decantation
Separation of Silt and Clay by Centrifuge
Randomly Oriented Aggregate Mounts
Smear Slide Mounts
Oriented-Aggregate Mounts
Ethylene Glycol Treatment
Heat Treatments
Lithium Saturation of Smectites
Intercalation of Kaolinite Group Minerals
Templates and Tables for Converting Degrees Two Theta to D-spacings
Semi-quantitative Analysis of Clay Minerals
Smear Slides for Optical Microscopy


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