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U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1196-Y

Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States

Titanium Recycling in the United States in 2004

By Thomas G. Goonan

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As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends.

In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

First posted August 2010

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Suggested citation:

Goonan, T.G., 2010, Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1196, p. Y1–Y16, available online at





Global Geologic Occurrence of Titanium

World Production

Production Processes

Mining, Concentrating, and Ilmenite Upgrading Processes

Semifabrication Processes (Metal)

Titanium Sponge (for Alloy, Metal, and Powder Products)

Titanium Ingot, Unwrought, Wrought, and Casting Products

Ferrotitanium Products

Manufacturing Processes

Steel (Titanium-Containing Alloys)


End Use of Titanium-Containing Metals


Sources and Disposition of Titanium Scrap

Old Scrap

Old Scrap Generated

Old Scrap Unrecovered

New Scrap

All Scrap

Processing of Titanium Scrap

Titanium Scrap Trade


References Cited


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