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National findings and their implications for water policies and strategies

U.S. Geological Circular 1225--The Quality of Our Nation's Waters--Nutrients and Pesticides


The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Quality, has incorporated NAWQA stream-quality data into their database for statewide 305 (b) water-quality standards compliance monitoring. The Division will use these data to identify and prioritize problems, direct management, and assist in natural resource management, including the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs).


Specific science-based considerations in this section are organized into four categories:

  1. Local and regional management strategies are needed to account for geographic patterns in land use, chemical use, and natural factors.
  2. Development of environmental policies must consider the entire hydrologic system and its complexities, including surface-water/ground-water interactions and atmospheric contributions.
  3. Water-quality standards, guidelines, and monitoring programs should reflect environmental conditions, including seasonal variations and contaminant mixtures.
  4. Reliable predictive models are required to cost effectively estimate water-quality conditions that can not be directly measured for a wide range of possible circumstances.




NAWQA FINDINGS on nutrients and pesticides suggest key science-based considerations for policies and strategies designed to restore and protect water quality.

Reductions of nutrient and (or) pesticide concentrations in streams and ground water clearly require management strategies that focus on reducing chemical use and subsequent transport in the hydrologic system. For these strategies to be effective, they should be developed with careful consideration of the patterns and complexities of contaminant occurrence, behavior, and influences on water quality. For example, concentrations of nutrients and pesticides vary from season to season, as well as among watersheds with differing vulnerability to contamination. These, and other patterns and complexities, frame four basic considerations that are critical for managing and protecting water resources in diverse settings across the Nation.

First, local and regional management strategies are needed to account for geographic patterns in land use, chemical use, and natural factors, which govern hydrologic behavior and vulnerability to contamination. Second, nutrients and pesticides are readily transported among surface water, ground water, and the atmosphere and, therefore, environmental policies that simultaneously address the entire hydrologic system are needed to protect water quality. Third, a top priority should be to reduce the uncertainty in estimates of the risks of pesticides and other contaminants to humans and aquatic life. This will require improved information on the nature of exposure and effects, and development of standards, guidelines, and monitoring programs that address the many complexities in contaminant occurrence. For example, neither current standards and guidelines nor associated monitoring programs, particularly with regard to pesticides, account for contamination that occurs as mixtures of various parent compounds and degradation products, or that is characterized by lengthy periods of low concentrations punctuated by brief, seasonal periods of higher concentrations. Finally, continued development of reliable predictive models is an essential element of cost-effective strategies to anticipate and manage nutrient and pesticide concentrations over a wide range of possible circumstances, over broad regions, and for the long term.

An understanding of these considerations will help water managers and policy makers in their implementation of environmental control and protection strategies, in investments in monitoring and science, and in the development of future environmental policies, standards, and guidelines. Such information should help guide answers to frequently asked questions, such as the following: How can we prioritize assessments and monitoring of nutrients and pesticides? What should we consider in the development of source-water protection programs and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)? How often should we monitor nutrients and pesticides? Are certain times of year more critical than other times? How much and when does ground water contribute to streams?

1. Local and regional management strategies are needed to account for geographic patterns in land use, chemical use, and natural factors.

Picture showing spraying of farm land.
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(Photo by Terry R. Maret)

NAWQA data and activities laid the framework for developing maps showing the vulnerability of ground water to contamination by the widely used herbicide atrazine (see, for example, p. 72). These maps are being used by the Idaho State Department of Agriculture to develop its State Pesticide Management Plan.

Picture of Pennsylvania countryside.
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(Photo by Albert E. Becher)

The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, in developing its State Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy, has decided to prioritize groundwater areas for assessments of pesticides on the basis of NAWQA vulnerability concepts, pesticide analyses, and quality-assurance protocols.


The Washington State Department of Ecology recently has created a Ground Water Management Area (GWMA) to protect ground water from nitrate contamination. The GWMA covers Grant, Franklin, and Adams Counties, located in an intensive agricultural region of the Central Columbia Plateau.

Level of needed protection increases with increasing amounts of agricultural and urban land Concentrations of nutrients and pesticides in streams and shallow ground water generally increase with increasing amounts of agricultural and urban land in a watershed. This relation results because chemical use increases and less water is available from undeveloped lands to dilute the chemicals originating from agricultural and urban lands. In Willamette Basin streams during high spring streamflow following fertilizer application, concentrations of nitrate increased proportionately (from less than 1 up to 10 milligrams per liter) with increasing drainage area in agriculture (from about 0 to nearly 100 percent). Concentrations of nutrients also were found to increase with the percentage of drainage areas in agriculture for watersheds in the Ozark Plateaus, Potomac River Basin, and Trinity River Basin. This relation is evident not only within small watersheds but also regionally where agricultural land and chemical use extend over broad areas. For example, intensive herbicide and fertilizer use in the Upper Midwest have resulted in some of the highest concentrations of atrazine collected in stream samples across the Nation. Management strategies that are successful in reducing use and transport of this herbicide could lead to regional improvements in water quality.

Shallow ground water used for domestic supply near agricultural settings requires special consideration

Shallow ground water (less than 100 feet below land surface) in or adjacent to agricultural land use requires special consideration, particularly in rural areas where it may be used for domestic supply. The proximity to land surface and the level of human activity increase the vulnerability of this resource to contamination. Homeowners usually are not aware of potential risks because domestic wells are not monitored regularly, as is required by the Safe Drinking Water Act for large public-supply wells. In addition, many homeowners in recently established residential areas that rely on domestic wells for drinking water are not aware that chemicals leached from previously farmed land can remain in the shallow ground water for decades as a result of its slow movement.

Level of protection needed in major aquifers varies with vulnerability to contamination

Concentrations of nitrate in major aquifers in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin are highest in agricultural areas in karst settings. In almost one-half of the samples, concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter, the drinking-water standard for nitrate.

Varied geologic settings result in differences in vulnerability to contamination in deep major aquifers. Recognition of this can help tailor and target the appropriate level of protection and monitoring to the major aquifers of most concern, as required in the Safe Drinking Water Act source-water and drinking-water programs and in nutrient- and pesticide-management plans. The most extensive environmental control strategies and monitoring should be considered in major aquifers in vulnerable geologic settings that allow rapid influx and vertical mixing of water from shallow groundwater systems. Such systems include sand and gravel aquifers or alluvial fans, particularly those that are heavily pumped for irrigation and public water supply, as well as karst settings that provide open conduits for relatively rapid downward movement of water. Equally important to consider are possible connections to deep parts of the aquifer through poorly constructed or improperly sealed wells that allow surface water to travel quickly down the outside of well casings.


Concentrations of nitrate in water from major aquifers in the Rio Grande Valley were less than 2 milligrams per liter, indicating that movement of shallow ground water into the deeper parts of the aquifer is minimal.

In general, extensive environmental control strategies and monitoring are less critical for most deep aquifers when compared to shallow ground water in similar land-use settings. Water in major aquifers generally is buried and protected deep beneath the land surface. Frequent sampling is not needed because the quality of deep ground water in these aquifers is minimally affected by seasonal events. Spatially intensive sampling generally is not needed because variations in water quality over short distances are small. Water in deep aquifers generally flows along deep and long paths that integrate water quality over large areas for extended periods, sometimes for centuries.

Even in relatively protected settings, major aquifers require some level of consideration to support long-term prevention from contamination. Ground water at all depths is part of an integrated system and can never fully escape future contamination as water moves downward from shallow systems. Future contamination in deep major aquifers could pose serious concerns because these aquifers commonly are used for public water supply and because restoration of the quality of this relatively inaccessible and slow-moving water would be costly and difficult.

Streams are more vulnerable to contamination than shallow ground water in areas that are extensively tile drained and ditched


Tile drains and ditches "short circuit" the groundwater system by intercepting soil water and shallow ground water and rapidly transporting it to streams. Tiling and ditching are commonly used to drain clayey glacial sediment in parts of the Midwest and organic, clayey Coastal Plain sediment in the Southeast. Streams in these areas can have elevated concentrations of agricultural chemicals because of outflow from drains and ditches. Seepage into the ground is minimized, resulting in lower concentrations of chemicals in ground water. An awareness of these conditions can help tailor the appropriate level of management and protection to streams in these areas.

Small streams are more vulnerable to rapid and intense contamination than are larger rivers

Hydrologic and basin characteristics, including size of the basin and amount of streamflow, affect the timing of and magnitude of exposure to contaminants in the environment. Small streams respond quickly to rainfall or irrigation and, therefore, pulses of contaminants reach higher concentrations and rise and fall more quickly than in larger rivers. In contrast, larger rivers generally have more moderate levels of contaminants, but for longer durations. Recognition of these differences can help target the appropriate timing and degree of management and protection for different types of streams.

Concentrations of atrazine were 10 times higher and increased more rapidly in Canajoharie Creek than in the Mohawk River following Summer 1994 storms in the Hudson River Basin. The Mohawk River receives water not only from Canajoharie Creek but also from other tributaries draining a mix of land uses.


2. Development of environmental policies must consider the entire hydrologic system and its complexities, including surface-water/groundwater interactions and atmospheric contributions

Effects of contaminants on the aquatic environment depend on surface-water flow

Measurements of streamflow, in combination with water-quality samples, are needed to fully assess the amount of material transported by a stream to receiving bodies, such as estuarine or coastal waters.

Contaminants and their potential effects on the environment vary throughout the year and largely depend on the amount of water flowing in a stream. Frequent monitoring is needed to characterize variations in contaminants, such as those that occur between low and high flows. Measurements of streamflow during these different conditions, in combination with water-quality samples, are needed to fully assess the amounts of contaminants transported by a stream throughout the year to a receiving body, such as an estuary. This information, particularly over the long term, is critical for developing TMDLs for streams and for assessing the potential effects of contaminants on the health and aquatic life of receiving waters.

Ground water can be a major nonpoint contributor of nutrients and pesticides to streams

Historically, ground water has been overlooked as a major nonpoint contributor of contaminants to streams and coastal waters. Groundwater issues for water managers, however, continue to grow in importance in many parts of the Nation. For example, more than one-half of the water and nutrients that enter Chesapeake Bay first travel through the groundwater system.(3) Consideration of groundwater contributions is needed in water-resource programs, such as State programs designed to establish TMDLs in streams. Exclusion of ground water may prevent a full accounting of all available sources and may limit the effectiveness that TMDLs could have in future stream restoration and protection. Consideration of ground water also may be needed to ultimately reach Clean Water Act goals for fishable, swimmable, and drinkable waters.

During low-flow conditions, when inflow to a 33-mile reach of the Suwannee River, Florida, is entirely from springs and other ground water, the daily load of nitrate transported in this reach nearly doubled.

The significance of ground water varies with local differences in geology and soils. Groundwater contributions to streams are most significant in geologic settings that allow rapid exchange between ground- and surface-water systems. Areas underlain by karst or by permeable and well-drained sediment can undergo relatively rapid, even seasonal, exchanges of water and contaminants. As seen in agricultural areas of the Platte River Valley in Central Nebraska,high concentrations of contaminants in streams commonly seep into shallow ground water following spring applications when river flows are high. In contrast, contaminants in aquifers can flow into adjoining streams during periods of low streamflow, such as noted in the Suwannee River in Florida.

In some areas, concentrations of contaminants may decrease as water is exchanged between streams and aquifers. For example, nitrate concentrations in about one-half of wells sampled near the South Platte River in Colorado exceeded the drinking-water standard. Ground water contributes a substantial amount of flow to the river in this area, but concentrations in the river were much lower than in the ground water because bacteria removed the nitrate as the ground water passed through the organic-rich streambed sediment.

Atmospheric contributions can be significant, too

The atmosphere can be a major source of nitrogen and pesticides. More than 3 million tons of nitrogen are deposited in the United States each year from the atmosphere, derived either naturally from chemical reactions or from the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal and gasoline. The highest contributions of nitrogen from the atmosphere occur in a broad band from the Upper Midwest through the Northeast. Recent studies have shown that as much as 25 percent of the nitrogen entering Chesapeake Bay comes from the atmosphere.(4) Nearly every pesticide that has been investigated has been detected in air, rain, snow, or fog throughout the country at different times of year. Annual average concentrations in air and rain are generally low, although elevated concentrations can occur during periods of high use, usually in spring and summer months. Several instances have been recorded in which concentrations in rain have exceeded drinking-water standards for atrazine, alachlor, and 2,4-D.(5) Atmospheric contributions are most likely to affect stream quality during periods when direct precipitation and surface runoff are the major sources of streamflow.

The atmosphere is an important part of the hydrologic cycle that can transport nutrients and pesticides from their point of application and deposit them outside the area or basin of interest. Consideration of atmospheric contributions is critical for effective management of water resources. Because atmospheric transport can cross State boundaries, full implementation of watershed-management strategies may require State and (or) regional involvement.

3. Water-quality standards, guidelines, and monitoring programs should reflect environmental conditions, including seasonal variations and contaminant mixtures.

Pesticide breakdown products and contaminant mixtures present new challenges for understanding health and environmental effects of pesticides

Pesticides break down to other compounds over time in the natural environment. Little is known about the occurrence of breakdown products, or their possible health and environmental effects. Frequent detections of some breakdown products, however, indicate the need for their consideration in the development of water-quality standards and monitoring strategies. For example, the herbicide atrazine commonly breaks down to DEA (deethylatrazine) and other products, both in streams and ground water; atrazine and DEA were detected together in more than 25 percent of groundwater samples in the first 20 Study Units. Water samples without detectable parent compounds, seemingly indicating no contamination, may merely reflect chemical transformations to other compounds. In fact, studies have shown that the parent compounds metolachlor, dacthal, alachlor, and cyanazine are often less commonly found in groundwater samples than their breakdown products.(6,34)

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation is applying NAWQA pesticide information and monitoring protocols in its statewide pesticide monitoring. The NAWQA data represent a broader array of analyses and lower detection limits than data previously available. The collaborative effort was sparked by public concerns over pesticides in New York State waters and their possible relation to the incidence of breast cancer.

Mixtures of contaminants also require special consideration in assessing possible health and environmental effects, and thus in developing and improving water-quality standards. More than one-half of all stream samples contained five or more pesticides, and nearly one-quarter of groundwater samples contained two or more. These mixtures of pesticide parent compounds also occur with breakdown products and other contaminants, such as nitrate. Continued research is needed to help reduce the current uncertainty in estimating risks from commonly occurring mixtures. As improved information is accumulated, the occurrence of contaminant mixtures should be considered when developing water-quality standards and monitoring requirements.

Some widely detected pesticides are not recognized in drinking-water monitoring requirements

New pesticides are introduced each year. It is often difficult to predict their behavior in the environment from laboratory experiments and to establish the appropriate level of monitoring needed to measure their occurrence. Designing appropriate monitoring programs for pesticides will, therefore, continue to be a dynamic process, continually evolving as new information is collected.

As an example, several pesticides that currently are not recognized on the USEPA Contaminant Candidate List were detected frequently in the first 20 Study Units. The USEPA is working with the USGS to target several of these pesticides for occurrence monitoring and guidance, including health advisories, as required by the Safe Drinking Water Act. Pesticides that were commonly detected in NAWQA analyses in the first 20 Study Units but that are not currently on the contaminant list are the herbicides 2,4-D and tebuthiuron and the insecticides carbaryl, malathion, and chlorpyrifos. Although not as frequently detected in the first 20 Study Units, the herbicide acetochlor, a probable human carcinogen approved for use in 1994, also is not on the list.

Seasonal patterns dictate the timing of high concentrations in drinking-water supplies and aquatic habitats

Surface runoff in agricultural areas can carry eroded sediment and attached chemicals, such as DDT, to streams during periods of heavy irrigation and (or) precipitation.

The vulnerability to contamination of streams and ground water can differ seasonally. Increased monitoring and special management of water-supply sources may be needed during high-flow conditions and periods of agricultural chemical applications. The temporary use of groundwater sources of supply-- if they have been developed and are available--might be considered as an alternative to surface-water sources to decrease the potential for not meeting drinking-water standards or aquatic-life criteria during such periods.

Concentrations of nutrients and some pesticides in streams draining agricultural areas commonly are higher during spring and summer months than during the rest of the year. Chemicals generally are transported shortly after application during high-flow conditions that result from spring rains, snowmelt, and (or) irrigation. Heavy irrigation runoff, which commonly carries high concentrations of nutrients and pesticides, is of special concern in the western part of the Nation (such as in the Trinity River Basin, San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, Rio Grande Valley, and Central Columbia Plateau) because such runoff can account for the majority of streamflow.

In other parts of the Nation, patterns can be different. For example, concentrations of diazinon in streams in the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins are high during winter because of high rainfall and use of dormant sprays on orchards. Differences in patterns also result from local water-management practices, including the timing of reservoir storage and water use. Seasonal patterns must be characterized and understood for each watershed because they dictate the timing of the highest concentrations in drinking-water supplies and aquatic habitats.

Monitoring during storms is needed to track peak inputs of contaminants to streams

Major events affecting streams used for drinking-water purposes may require intensified monitoring during peak fertilizer- and pesticide-application periods. As an example, the Potomac River at Washington, D.C., carried an estimated 3,300 pounds of the herbicide atrazine and 3.3 million pounds of nitrogen in 5 days during a flood in June 1996. On two consecutive days following the storm, atrazine was measured at concentrations greater than the drinking-water standard of 3 micrograms per liter.

Excessive amounts of contaminants can enter streams during storms and can have overriding effects on the quality of streams and the respective receiving bodies, such as estuarine or coastal waters. High flows in the Susquehanna, Potomac, and James Rivers during January 1996, for example, carried nearly one-half of the phosphorus and one-quarter of the nitrogen that typically is transported to the Chesapeake Bay in an average year.(7) Fortunately, this flood occurred in winter, a time when grasses and many living organisms were dormant and when farmland, rich in nutrients, was frozen. Effects, such as increased algal growth and low levels of dissolved oxygen from subsequent algal decay, could have been much greater if the flood had occurred in spring or summer. Without monitoring information during major hydrologic events, a full accounting of nutrients and pesticides transported by streams is incomplete, and a full understanding of the effects of these contaminants on the health and living resources of receiving waters, such as the Chesapeake Bay, is restricted.


Considerations in monitoring the effectiveness of conservation buffers

Vegetation along waterways can help slow surface runoff and movement of nutrients, pesticides, and sediment within and from farm fields and can improve stream quality.

Conservation buffers are small areas or strips of vegetation designed to mitigate the movement of sediment, nutrients, and pesticides within and from farm fields. They are supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Bill and many conservation programs, such as the Conservation Reserve Program, Environmental Quality Incentives Program, and the Stewardship Incentives Program. The USDA goal is to help landowners install 2 million miles of conservation buffers by the year 2002.(8)

There are two considerations in monitoring the effectiveness of conservation buffers. The first consideration relates to tracking groundwater quality. In some areas, slowing the transport of runoff to streams by use of conservation buffers can increase infiltration of water and contaminants into the ground. As shown by the USGS in the Delmarva Peninsula, a pilot NAWQA study initiated in the mid-1980s, the transport and fate of these contaminants in the ground is variable, depending on soil and aquifer composition, topography, and rates and pathways of groundwater flow.(9) Monitoring of groundwater quality might, therefore, be beneficial to fully assess potential effects of conservation strategies.

The second consideration relates to time of year and its implications on tracking stream quality. The effectiveness of conservation buffers on stream quality is likely to be most evident when streamflow is dominated by runoff from rainfall, snowmelt, and (or) irrigation following chemical applications. Their effectiveness is likely to be less evident during low-flow conditions, when most of the streamflow is from groundwater discharge.

Long-term monitoring may be needed to evaluate the effectiveness of crop-management practices

Long-term monitoring may be needed to evaluate the effectiveness of some environmental control strategies, such as crop-management practices, because of the slow rate of groundwater flow and the time lag between adoption of practices and improvement of water quality. As demonstrated in the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, shallow ground water below farmland will improve first, sometimes in several years or less. Decades may pass, however, before water quality improves in deeper aquifers.

A time lag between adoption of crop-management practices and improvement of water quality also can occur for streams. Because ground water containing elevated concentrations of nutrients and pesticides can discharge to surface water, enhancement of stream quality also could lag changes in agricultural practices by years or decades.

Consistent and systematic information is needed over the long term to measure local, regional, and national trends

For many chemicals, it is too early to assess trends because historical data are insufficient or inconsistent. Some trends have emerged, however, from monitoring nutrients and pesticides; they show that changes in water quality over time are controlled largely by soils, geology, and other natural features, and by changes in chemical use and management practices. For example, concentrations of phosphorus and ammonia have decreased in rivers downstream from wastewater treatment plants since the 1970s because of improved treatment technology. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides have been reduced in sediment and fish since restrictions on production and distribution of these pesticides in the 1970s and 1980s.

Progress in water-quality improvement, especially in ground water, may not be evident for years after farmers change their land-management practices because of slow groundwater movement.

Changes in concentrations of modern, short-lived pesticides follow changes in use and tend to be focused in specific regions and land-use areas. For example, increases in acetochlor and decreases in alachlor are evident in some streams in the Upper Midwest, where acetochlor began replacing alachlor for control of weeds in corn and soybeans in 1994. The changes in use are reflected in stream quality relatively quickly, generally within 1 to 2 years.

In contrast, groundwater quality responds more slowly to changes in chemical use or adoption of land-management practices, typically lagging by several years and even decades. Local variations in natural features, such as soil types and amounts of recharge, can result in variable rates of groundwater flow, which thereby affect long-term responses to land-management practices. For example, concentrations of nitrate decreased significantly (from about 18 milligrams per liter in the mid-1980s to less than 2 milligrams per liter in the mid-1990s) in ground water underlying parts of the Central Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska, after implementation of fertilizer management strategies. Yet, despite implementation of the strategies, the response has been delayed in other parts of the District because of differences in local features controlling groundwater flow. Specifically, concentrations of nitrate remained greater than two times the USEPA drinking-water standard in nearly one-fourth of wells in one area sampled by the District in the mid-1990s.

Systematic and consistent monitoring over the long term is essential at local, State, and national levels. Such monitoring will help water managers and policy makers to evaluate how well local and regional environmental controls are working and to choose the most cost-effective resource strategies for the future.

4. Reliable predictive models are required to cost effectively estimate water-quality conditions that can not be directly measured for a wide range of possible circumstances

Effective strategies for managing nutrients and pesticides, as well as related water-quality issues, require far more information than we can afford to directly measure for the full range of places and times that are important. Moreover, many management problems, ranging from deciding how much to spend on a management strategy to approving a pesticide for use, are inherently related to predicting potential effects on water quality. Models and other methods can be useful for predicting water-quality conditions over a wide range of possible circumstances and are essential for improving water-quality management over broad regions.

NAWQA findings are beginning to play an important role in model development and validation, and an increased emphasis of explanatory and predictive modeling is planned for the second cycle of investigation in each Study Unit. Early examples are the estimation of groundwater vulnerability to atrazine contamination in the Upper Snake River Basin (p. 72) and to nitrate contamination in the Puget Sound Basin (see sidebar). In addition, groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination also was assessed at the national scale (p. 51). Although not directly predicting an outcome, these analyses use correlations to rank the likelihood and risk of contamination.

One of the most important roles that NAWQA can fulfill in working with water-management agencies is to provide systematic, high-quality data that can be used to develop and test predictive models for hydrologic systems throughout the Nation. The USEPA, for example, is using NAWQA pesticide data to test the reliability of models now being used to predict possible pesticide occurrence in streams and reservoirs. Water-quality models have been in use for many years, but their utility depends on their reliability for representing actual conditions. Without demonstrated reliability based on comparisons to measured conditions, confidence in a model is difficult to attain, and the usefulness of the model in decision making, especially in controversial situations, is limited.

As NAWQA studies progress from an emphasis on assessing and documenting water-quality conditions and cause-and-effect factors (during the first cycle of investigation) to an emphasis on a more detailed understanding of the most critical processes controlling water quality (during the second cycle), the development of predictive models will continue to grow and play a more vital role in both analysis and water-management applications.


Predicting groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination

A statistical model was created to predict the vulnerability of ground water to nitrate contamination from human activities in urban and agricultural areas in the Puget Sound Basin, Washington.(10) Factors that were used to predict the risk of contamination were well depth, surficial geology, and the percentage of agricultural and urban land use within a 2-mile radius of the well. Results from risk models provide managers with tools for guiding future land-use development, assessing potential health risks associated with nitrate, and designing cost-effective monitoring programs.

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