Skip Links

USGS - science for a changing world

Open-File Report 95–273

A revised version of Volcano Hazards from Mount Rainier is available at

Volcano Hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington

By R.P. Hoblitt, J.S. Walder, C.L. Driedger, K.M. Scott, P.T. Pringle, and J.W. Vallance

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (0.5 MB)Introduction

Mount Rainier—at 4393 meters (14,410 feet) the highest peak in the Cascade Range—is a dormant volcano whose load of glacier ice exceeds that of any other mountain in the conterminous United States. This tremendous mass of rock and ice, in combination with great topographic relief, poses a variety of geologic hazards, both during inevitable future eruptions and during the intervening periods of repose.

The volcano’s past behavior is the best guide to possible future hazards. The written history of Mount Rainier encompasses the period since about A.D. 1820, during which time one or two small eruptions, many small debris flows, and several small debris avalanches have occurred. This time interval is far too brief to serve as a basis for estimating the future behavior of a volcano that is several hundreds of thousands of years old. Fortunately, prehistoric deposits record the types, magnitudes, and frequencies of past events, and show which areas were affected by them. At Mount Rainier, as at other Cascade volcanoes, deposits produced since the latest ice age (approximately during the past 10,000 years) are well preserved. Studies of these deposits reveal that we should anticipate potential hazards from some phenomena that only occur during eruptions and from others that may occur without eruptive activity. Tephra falls, pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surges, ballistic projectiles, and lava flows occur only during eruptions. Debris avalanches, debris flows, and floods commonly accompany eruptions, but can also occur during dormant periods.

This report (1) explains the various types of hazardous geologic phenomena that could occur at Mount Rainier, (2) shows areas that are most likely to be affected by the different phenomena, (3) estimates the likelihood that the areas will be affected, and (4) recommends actions that can be taken to protect lives and property. It builds upon and revises a similar document prepared by D.R. Crandell in 1973. Our revision was motivated by the availability of new information about Mount Rainier’s geologic history, by advances in the field of volcanology, and by the need to assess hazards in a more quantitative manner than in Crandell’s pioneering report.

Link to the Data

Links to the Other Hazard Assessments

First posted April 4, 2011
Revised September 20, 2013

For additional information:
Contact CVO
Volcano Science Center, Cascades Volcano Observatory
U.S. Geological Survey
1300 SE Cardinal Court, Building 10, Suite 100
Vancouver, WA 98683-9589

This report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); the latest version of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.

Suggested citation:

Hoblitt, R.P., Walder, J.S., Driedger, C.L., Scott, K.M., Pringle, P.T., and Vallance, J.W., 1995, Volcano hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95–273, 10 p., 1 plate



Hazardous Phenomena at Mount Rainier

Lateral Blasts

Glacial Outburst Floods

What Will Happen When Mount Rainier Reawakens?

Protecting Our Communities and Ourselves from Volcano Hazards

Volcano-Hazard Maps

Suggestions for Further Reading

One plate

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information: GS Pubs Web Contact
Page Last Modified: Wednesday, 07-Dec-2016 16:00:40 EST