|Open-File Report 01–104: Readme file|
Vernadsky State Geological Museum
Russian Standard Classification for FSU Coals
Russian Coal Quality Database
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The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Committee on Geology of the Use of Subsurface Resources of the Russian Federation (ROSKOMNEDRA), and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Cooperation in Geoscience. The USGS, the Vernadsky State Geologic Museum (VSGM) representing the ROSKOMNEDRA, and the RAS collaborated to produce a Geographic Information System (GIS) product that contains information on geology, resources, and quality of coal from the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The FSU includes the Russian Federation (RF), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (fig. 1).
The purpose of the GIS project is to integrate
the geology, coal basins and deposits by coal rank,
and roads of the FSU
utilizing Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcInfo and
The Russian coauthors supplied ArcInfo files that were modified by the
USGS and combined with USGS data files to create an ArcView project.
contained in this
were selected from monographs, reference books, and unpublished
that were reviewed
and deemed reliable by the authors. Information
on the deposit name, location, age, and rank were included in the database
and obtained from Russian geologic maps and publications. The database includes more than 265 coal deposit data
points with information on the deposit name, location, age, and rank; coal
reserve and resource reliability categories are listed for 671 coal-bearing
areas in the FSU.
The database includes more than 265 coal deposit data
points with information on the deposit name, location, age, and rank; coal
reserve and resource reliability categories are listed for 671 coal-bearing
areas in the FSU.
to several studies, within the boundaries of the FSU there are hundreds of coal
deposits (fig 2 and fig3)
that contain as much as 40 to 50 percent of the Earth’s total coal
resources. Russia is the sixth
largest coal producer in the world
with a total coal production of 163 million metric tons
(World Coal Institute, 2000) and coal exports of less than 27 million metric
tons in 1999 (Knapp, 2000). Coal deposits
in the FSU formed under diverse geochemical and climatic conditions and have
undergone various structural histories, and are found in 8 geological periods:
Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and
Neogene. Because of this diversity the coal quality shows wide ranges in
Figure 1. Map showing countries
included in the Former Soviet Union (FSU).
|Coal samples included in the coal sample point database were selected from the most reliable sources of data critically reviewed by the Russian coauthors. Coal quality and chemical analyses are included for 180 coal samples with information on deposit name, location, age, rank, mine name and operator, lithology of coal-bearing rocks, proximate and ultimate analyses, mineral composition, and major-, minor-, and trace-element content. This is the most comprehensive study compiled by the USGS to date of the coal in the FSU.|
|Figure 2. Chernogorsky strip mine, located in the high
volatile bituminous (coal mark D) Permian Chernogorskoye coal deposit,
Krasnoyarsky district, Khakassiya region, Minusinsky coal basin, Russia.
Photo by Mikhail Povarennykh, Vernadsky State Geological Museum.
|Russian Standard Classification for FSU Coals|
of differing classification schemes, it is sometimes difficult to compare
Russian coals with the same coal rank (equivalent to Russian coal mark) from
different basins and deposits, as well as to compare Russian coals with coals from other countries (USA, Australia, Southern Africa, Great Britain) that
have developed their own coal classifications.
The Committee of the Russian Federation for Standardization, Metrology,
and Certification (GOSSTANDART or GOST) and its FSU predecessor approved
several classification systems in an attempt to standardize the coal
classification (Babkin (1981), GOST 21489-76; Yeriomin (1988), GOST 25543-88;
Fiodorova (1995), GOST 30313-95).
|Figure 3. Neriungrinsky strip mine, located in the bituminous
(coal mark SS) Jurassic Neriungrinskoye coal deposit, Yakutiya region, Yuzhno-Yakutsky
coal basin, Russia. Photo by Mikhail Povarennykh, Vernadsky State Geological
|The GOSSTANDART (GOST 25543-88) standard classification
of coals for the Former Soviet Union coals describes brown and hard
coals and anthracites (Yeriomin, 1988). The
Russian classification suggests that all physical, mechanical, chemical, and
technological characteristics of organic fraction of coal could be derived
from the mutual influence of the following three factors: (1) the coal
metamorphism grade, (2) the petrographic composition, and (3) the degree of
and Bronovetz, 1994). The coal
metamorphism grade is characterized by the vitrinite reflectance index (column
Characteristics table, Appendix B) in
immersion oil (Rr, in percent) while the petrographic composition
is characterized by the fusinized micro components content (SOK,
in percent, i.e. inertinite,
Standard Characteristics table, Appendix B), and the degree of reductibility is
differentiated by a variety of characteristics for different ranks. For coals of low rank, the degree of reductibility is
characterized by the semi-coking resin yield (column Resin,
Standard Characteristics table, Appendix B) on a dry ash free basis (Tskdaf,
in weight percent). For coals of
medium rank, this parameter is characterized by the volatile matter yield
(column Volmat, Standard
Characteristics table, Appendix B) on a
dry ash free basis (Vdaf, in weight percent) and the coal caking
ability that can be evaluated by the thickness of the Sapozhnikov plastic
layer index (Y, in mm, Sapozhnikov and Bazilevich, 1935; Eriomin and Bronovetz,
1987, column Plasticthk,
Standard Characteristics table, Appendix B). For coals of
(anthracites), the degree of reductibility can be determined by the anisotropy
of the vitrinite reflectance index (AR, in percent, column Anistotropy,
Standard Characteristics table, Appendix B).
According to the above parameters, coal marks were developed and subdivided into groups and subgroups. Within the coals of low rank (brown), one coal mark (B) and three groups (1B, 2B, 3B) are classified. Within coals of medium rank, 15 coal marks (D, DG, G, GZhO, GZh, Zh, KZh, K, KO, KSN, KS, OS, TS, SS, T) and 21 coal groups (1G, 2G, 1GZhO, 2GZhO, 1GZh, 2GZh, 1Zh, 2Zh, 1K, 2K, 1KO, 2KO, 1KS, 2KS, 1OS, 2OS, 1SS, 2SS, 3SS, 1T, 2T) are classified. Within the coals of high rank, one coal mark (A) and three groups (1A, 2A, and 3A) are classified. The comparison between the Russian coal marks classified according to the GOST 25543-88 standards and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard coal classification ASTM D388-98a (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999; table 1, p.188) was approximated by the Russian coauthors as follows:
1. Coal in the 1B group corresponds to lignite A and B;
2. coal in the 2B group corresponds to subbituminous C coal;
3. coal in the 3B group corresponds to subbituminous B coal;
4. coal in coal mark D corresponds to subbituminous A coal;
5. coals of the marks DG, G, GZhO, GZh, and part of the mark Zh correspond
to high volatile bituminous coals;
6. coals in coal marks KZh, K, KO, KSN, KS, and the remaining part of the
mark Zh correspond to medium volatile bituminous coals;
7. coals in coal marks OS, TS correspond to low volatile bituminous coals;
8. coal in coal mark T mainly corresponds to semi-anthracite;
9. coal in the groups PA, 1A, and 2A corresponds to semi-anthracites and
10. coal in the group 3A corresponds mainly to meta-anthracite.
|The Russian coal mark SS classified within the GOST
standard can not be compared with the ASTM D388-98a standard due to the fact that
regardless of the different values of the volatile matter, mainly due to high,
more than 60 percent, inertinite content they cannot be caked or agglomerated.
The USGS has modified the above comparisons in table 1 to include the missing coal ranks listed in the ASTM standard classification.
There can be significant variation in the composition
and characteristics of vitrinite, inertinite and liptinite for coal with equal
reflectance indexes. This
variation was described as the “degree of reductibility” by the Russian
investigators Eriomin and Bronovetz (1994).
As a result of these variations, they developed their own coal
classification and applied it to all the main coal producing basins of Russia,
such as the Kuznetsky, Pechorsky, Donetsky, and Kansko-Achinsky basins.
1. Approximate coal rank relationships between the Former Soviet Union (GOSSTANDART) and United States (ASTM) coal classifications.
Exact equivalence of a particular sample is difficult because the conditions of sample handling,
chemical analyses and variation in usage of terms by the coal industry in the Former Soviet
Union is often unclear.
Coal Quality and Resource ArcView Project and Associated Databases
The purpose of this ArcView project is to integrate ArcInfo files of the geology, coal basins and deposits by coal rank, coal reserves and resource categories, with rail lines, rivers, and roads of the FSU as supplied by the Russian coauthors. The USGS compiled a coal quality database from data reviewed and deemed reliable by the Russian coauthors. The Russian coauthors supplied ArcInfo files and associated databases that were modified by the USGS and combined with USGS data files to create an ArcView project.
Coal deposit data points with information on the deposit name, location, age, and rank were included in the database, while coal quality and chemical analyses were included for selected data points (see Appendix B). The project includes 267 coal deposit data points (coal deposit theme) containing information on the deposit name, location, age, and rank, while coal quality and chemical analyses were included for 180 commodity and composite coal samples (coal sample point theme). The commodity sample is a composite run-of-mine sample consisting of 15 to 30 primary samples obtained during 3 to 4 month period of coal mining. The composite sample represents a 100 or more primary trench samples collected from a coal bed in a coalfield or coal basin. The coal resources theme contains 671 data entries listing coal reserve, coal resource, and potential coal resource reliability categories subdivided by Russian coal mark, territory name and age, deposit name and age.
To begin characterizing the Russian coals, information
was first compiled from the large coal basins and deposits in the FSU.
Among the first 90 coal samples included in the database, the largest
number of samples (30) is from the Kuznetsky coal basin, which is the largest
coal producing basin in the FSU. The Kuznetsky basin produces about 50 percent of
all exploited coal, including almost all of the hard coal
in the Russian Federation. This
situation is expected to continue for many years. Data from
the Donetsky, Kansko-Achinsky, and Pechorsky large coal basins and well as other
smaller producing basins were also included in the database.
All coal characteristics (excluding those mentioned
below) were obtained according to analytical methods corresponding with the
standards of either the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) or Russian
GOST standards (Appendix B).
According to the GOST standards, liptinite content
Standard Characteristics table Appendix B), total moisture (column Moisture,
Standard Characteristics table Appendix B), humic acids content (column Hum_Acid,
Standard Characteristics table Appendix B), and yield of semi-coking resin
(column Resin, Standard
Characteristics table Appendix B) were specified for brown coals. For
hard coals, Roga index (column Roga,
Standard Characteristics table Appendix B) and free crucible swelling number
Standard Characteristics table Appendix B) were specified.
For anthracites, anisotropy of reflectance (column Anisotropy,
Standard Characteristics table Appendix B) was specified.
The coal sample point theme database
presented in the ArcView project contains the following files:
general.dbf is described in Appendix B, table 1
std_char.dbf is described in Appendix B, table 2
mineral.dbf is described in Appendix B, table 3
elemcomp.dbf is described in Appendix B, table 4
washdata.dbf is described in Appendix B, table 5
Database fields in the above dbf files are described in Appendix B and data dictionary files are located within the directories fsucoal/doc and fsucoal/html. All files are situated within the directory fsucoal/tables/ on the CD-ROM in 3 file formats: (1) comma delineated (csv), (2) Dbase (dbf0, and (3) Microsoft Excel (xls).
If a Russian coal deposit contained only one bed, the value 1 was assigned in the DEPTYPE column in the coal sample point data base (Appendix B, General characteristics, table 1); in case of a multi-bed deposit (2 to 4 beds) the value 2 was assigned; and in case of more than 4 beds in the deposit the value 3 was assigned.
The subdivisions of coal bed dip are based on the following Russian dip angle classes: horizontal is less than 10o, slope ranges from 10 to 20o, inclined ranges from 20 to 45o, and steep is greater than 45o. These class values were combined and listed in the Dip column of the coal sample point database (Appendix B, General characteristics, Column DIP).
GOST 25543-88 coal marks are specified by Cyrillic characters (Yeriomin, 1988), but are here designated by the transliterated Roman character equivalents (shown in parentheses) in the databases (column Gostmark, General Characteristics table, Appendix B) and the map legends in the ArcView project as follows:
|For brown coals only, the group name (B)
of coal will not be listed, instead the subgroup(1B, 2B and 3B) in the
column Gostmark of the database table will be listed.
age of coals and coal-bearing strata are
represented on the maps,
and in the coal
quality database (coal sample point theme) as "Pg" (General Characteristics table, Appendix B, column
Because of the low degree of coalification of brown coals
and the fact that the coal-associated rocks are very often weakly cemented, the
lithological composition of brown coals in the coal data point theme database
will be listed as follows: in the column name SANDSTONE, weight percent
sands are presented; in column SILTSTONE, weight percent silt is listed;
in column ARGILLITE, weight percent clays is listed; and in column CARBARGIL,
weight percent coaly clays is listed.
|The letter notations are used for rock unit ages and
subseries and series in the Coal Resources of the Former Soviet Union
and Surface Geology of the Former Soviet Union views and in their associated
An example of this letter notation is listed in table 2.
|Table 2. Coal-bearing
rocks of the Kuznetsky basin include the following series, subseries and
suites (from the younger to the older ones):
Mineral matter content (column min_mat,
Standard Characteristics table, Appendix B) on a dry basis (Md)
in coals of the Kuznetsky basin was evaluated according to the following
relationships from ash content (column Ash,
Standard Characteristics table, Appendix B) on a dry basis (Ad) where carbon
(column Carbon, Standard
Characteristics table, Appendix B) on a
dry, ash free basis (Cdaf) was obtained by the authors from
statistical analysis of experimental data:
Md = 1.11Ad (Cdaf less than or equal to 80 percent);
Md = 1.08Ad (Cdaf more than 80% and less than 90 percent); and
Md = 1.05Ad (Cdaf more than or equal to 90 percent).
|Most of the data included in the project databases are from literature devoted to trace-element studies of Russian coals conducted
during the past 50 years. The
trace-element data through 1985 was summarized in a monograph by Yudovitch and others (1985), and in the
newer published data (Kler and others, 1987;
Kler and others, 1988; Shpirt and others, 1990; Cherepovsky and others, 1996).
The coal sample database also contains data from Ulianov
(1975) and unpublished analytical data obtained by the Russian
coauthors for some samples.
Much of the data was hard to compare due to different analytical
methods that vary in their accuracy and sensitivity so care should be taken
will using the data.
data for the commodity and composite coal samples are given as average
The following analytical methods were used to obtain major-, minor-, and trace-element data listed in the coal sample point database (Appendix B, table 4, Major-, minor-, and trace-element contents in coal, elemcomp.dbf) and are listed in the element method column:
1 - Quantitative Spectral Analysis;
|The elements Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na,
Si, and Ti
were determined by “wet” silicate chemical analysis with detection limits
ranging from 0.01-0.05 percent. They
are expressed as oxides in the coal sample
database (Appendix B, table 4, Major-, minor-, and trace-element contents) and
not repeated as individual elements in the database. Titanium
was also determined by photocolourimetric methods (column Ti_ppm,
Appendix B, table 4, Major-,
minor-, and trace-element contents).
Detection limits and sensitivity of these
analytical methods for specific elements are reported in Shpirt and others
(1990) and Cherepovsky and others (1996). Table
3 shows the analytical method used for selected elements with the detection limit
listed in percent by whole coal or coal ash basis. The
analytical method document number is listed where it has
been approved by GOSSTANDART or the Scientific Council on Analytical Methods (NSAM).
Where the listed method has not been approved, the
institute proposing the standard method is listed.
Coefficients of concentration (Ki, table 4, Major-, minor-, and trace-element contents, Appendix B) were calculated by the following method: dividing the average element content in a sample by its background content or average element content in analyzed coals of the Former Soviet Union reported in Yudovitch and others (1985), Kler and others, (1987), and Shpirt and others (1990). The average background-element values (in ppm) are, in parentheses:
|The geochemical specialization of the
the coal sample
(Appendix B, table 4, elemcomp.dbf) lists elements which may have bi-product
Elements listed must have
contents greater than two times the average
Coals having contents of uranium and thorium above the detection limit (table 3) are listed in the Toxics column (Appendix B, table 4, Major-, minor-, trace-element contents), as well as coals containing elevated contents of As (greater than 300 ppm), Be (greater than 50 ppm), and F (greater than 500 ppm). Coals containing elevated contents of potentially toxic elements such as Co (greater than 100 ppm), Cr (greater than 100 ppm), Hg (greater than 0.5 ppm), Mn (greater than 1000 ppm), Ni (greater than 100 ppm), Pb (greater than 50 ppm), and V (greater than 100 ppm) are also listed in the Toxics column.
Washability of coal (Appendix B, table 5), corresponds
to size fractions and density fractions with the following densities values:
less than 1,300 kg/m3
(column Den_lt13), from
(column den_13_14), from
1,400 to 1,500 kg/m3 (column den_14_15),
from 1,500 to 1,600 kg/m3 (column den_15_16),
from 1,600 to 1,800 kg/m3 (column den_16_18),
from 1,800 to 2,000 kg/m3 (column den_18_20),
and greater than 2,000 kg/m3 (column den_gt20).
Column Den_sum corresponds
to the sum of the different density fractions.
Columns corresponding to ash yields of the density fractions are also
listed. Column Ash_ave corresponds
to the average value ash yield.
The washability data of the mines and open-strips of
the Kuznetsky and Pechorsky Basins can be displayed from the Coal Resources of the Former
Soviet Union, Coal Basins of the Former Soviet Union, Surface Geology of the
Former Soviet Union, and the Kuznetsky Basin
views with the help of the special hot button (lightning) in the ArcView
Project. This feature will only
work if the project is placed on the computer hard drive. In order to close the washability data table, one should
touch the button or close the table.
Washability data for the brown coals are not included in the database. The washability and density distribution information for brown coals (lignites) is not reliable because of the unstable character of brown coals during washing in water and long term exposure to air.
If the value for any parameter in the database tables 1-5 (Appendix B) was not determined, the number -9999 is listed. For values that were determined below the detection limit of analytical method, the number -9988 is listed (see Appendix B, table 3). In the columns listing lithological composition of coal bearing strata, inertinite content, liptinite content, and mineral composition of coal in the database (Appendix B, tables 1 and 2) the number ¯8888 is listed where the values were determined below the one percent limit.
Table 3. Detection limits of quantitative analytical methods and standard method references used for the trace-element evaluation of commercial and composite whole coal and ashed coal samples.
[Table 1.2, pp. 12-13, Cherepovsky and others (1996)]
1GOST (GOSSTANDART)-Committee of the Russian Federation for Standardization, Metrology, and Certification, Moscow, Russia
2IMGRE-Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Crystal Chemistry of Rare Elements, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia
3NSAM 218-X-Scientific (Nauchny) Council (Soviet) on Analytical
Methods for the Former Soviet Union and Russia, Moscow, Russia
4LAR OIYal-Laboratory of Nuclear Reactor of the Combined
Institute of Nuclear Investigations, Russian Academy of Sciences, Dubna,
5GGP “Yuzhgeologiya”-Geological-Geophysical Party “Yuzhgeology”,
Kazakhstan Ministry of Geology, Almaty, Kazakhstan
6IMR-Institution of Mineral Resources, Ukrainian Academy
of Sciences, Simpheropol’, Ukraine
7TsL GGP “Kamchatgeologiya”-Central Laboratory of the Geological-Geophysical
Party, Kamchatgeology, Russian Federation Ministry of Geology, Petropavlovsky,
8SAIGIMS (Sredne-Asiatsky)-Middle Asian State Institute of
Mineral Resources, Ministry of Geology of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
4LAR OIYal-Laboratory of Nuclear Reactor of the Combined Institute of Nuclear Investigations, Russian Academy of Sciences, Dubna, Russia
5GGP “Yuzhgeologiya”-Geological-Geophysical Party “Yuzhgeology”, Kazakhstan Ministry of Geology, Almaty, Kazakhstan
6IMR-Institution of Mineral Resources, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Simpheropol’, Ukraine
7TsL GGP “Kamchatgeologiya”-Central Laboratory of the Geological-Geophysical Party, Kamchatgeology, Russian Federation Ministry of Geology, Petropavlovsky, Kamchatka
8SAIGIMS (Sredne-Asiatsky)-Middle Asian State Institute of Mineral Resources, Ministry of Geology of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
|ArcView project for the Former Soviet
This ArcView project was produced by the U. S. Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado, from data files provided by the Russian coauthors and modified by the USGS.
order to assure complete cross-platform access and to make the project as
simple to use as possible, there are two versions of the ArcView project
presented on this CD-ROM. The
directory fsucoal/views contains the version (fsucoal.apr) designed for
any computer platform supporting ArcView v3.0 or later, along with data and
ancillary files. The directory is configured to be self-contained and can be
copied to the user's hard drive. The directory fsucoal/views also
contains the version (fsu_win.apr) that is designed specifically for Windows
95/98/NT/2000 operating systems and requires no action by the user in order to
The spatial data are presented in the ArcView project as shape files in "Geographic" latitude and longitude coordinates. They are found in the directory shapes. The views are projected to Lambert Equal Area Azimuthal projection. The views depicting more detailed maps of specific basins or deposits are presented here as graphic images with point shapefiles to allow the user to query the data base for information on specific data points. These point shapefiles are found in the directory fsucoal/views/sketch, and are not georeferenced. Shape files used to present the cross-sections in the ArcView project are also not georeferenced and are found in the directory x-section.
The presentations of the coal quality and geologic data are organized in the ArcView project in three categories: Views, Legends and X-section, seen in the project window. The user can click on the category icon to see the list of available presentations. There are also pull-down menus, where they can be accessed. The category Views includes georeferenced views of coal quality and geologic data, and basin-scale views that are not georeferenced. The category Legends includes map legends for the basin-scale views and the cross-sections. The category X-section includes cross-section presentations.
ArcView version 3.0 was used to develop the project in order to ensure that any ArcView license version 3.0 or later can read the project.
It is necessary to have ArcView version 3.0 or later installed in order to view the project.
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 1999, Standard classification of
coals by rank, D388-98a: in 1999
Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil
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ASTM, 522 p.
I.I, ed., 1969, Kuznetsky, Gorlovsky basseyny I drugiye ugol’niye
mestorozhdeniya Zapadnoy Sibiri, Tom 7 of Geologiya mestorozhdeniy uglya i goryuchikh slantsev SSSR
[Kuznetsky and Gorlovsky coal deposits of Western Siberia, Volume 7 of
Geology of coal and combustible shale deposits of the USSR]: Moscow, Nedra,
912 p. [In Russian]
Babkin, V.S., ed., 1981, Ugli burye, kamennye i antratsity. Razdeleniye na stadii metamorfizma i klassy po pokazateliam otrazheniya vitrinita [Brown coals, hard coals and anthracites. Subdivision by stages of methamorphism and vitrinite reflectance classes]: GOSSTANDART, GOST 21489-76, Governmental Standard of the USSR, Moscow, Standards Publishing House, 4 . [In Russian]
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Karagandinsky I Aekibastuzsky basseiny. Skhematicheskaya
karta razvedannosti Aekibastuzskogo kamennougol`nogo basseina, masshtaba
analysis of hard coal quality and regularities of geological setting due to
different basins/deposits (according to the program of the Council of
Economical Mutual Aid), Karagandinsky and Aekibastuzsky basins.
Exploration map of the Aekibastuzsky hard coal basin, Scale 1:25,000]:
Centrkazgeologiya [Central-Kazakhstan Industrial Geological Association]
Ministry of Geology of the Kazakh USSR, Almaty. [In Russian]
V.F., Rogova, V.M., and Kler, V.R., eds., 1996, Tsenniye i toksichniye
elementy v tovarnykh ugliakh Rossii. Spravochnik [Valuable and toxic elements
in commercial coals of the Russia], Moscow: Nedra, 238 p. [In Russian]
ed., 1990, Geologo-tekhnologicheskoye kartirovaniye iskopayemykh ugley Gruzii.
Skhematicheskaya karta marochnogo sostava uglei Tkvarchel`skogo
mestorozhdeniya, masshtaba 1:16,500
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and Bronovetz, T.M., 1994, Marochny sostav ugley i ikh ratsional`noye
ispol`zovaniye [Coal mark composition and perspective trends of coal
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and Bronovetz, T.M., eds., 1987, Ugli kamennye: Metod opredeleniya
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R.S., ed., 1995, Ugli kamennye i antratsity (Ugli srednego i vysokogo rangov)
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30313-95, Governmental Standard of the USSR, Minsk, Interrepublican Council on
Standartization, Metrology and Certification, 12 p. [In Russian]
E.V., ed., 1992, Metallonosnost` ugley Central`nogo Tadjikistana.
Skhematicheskaya geologicheskaya karta kamennougol`nogo mestorozhdeniya
Phan-Yagnob. [Metal-bearing capacity of coals of Central Tadjikistan.
Schematic geological map of the Phan-Yagnob hard coal deposit, Scale
1:25,000]: Magiansky geological survey expedition, Tadjgeologiya (Ministry of
Geology of Tadjik Republic and Industrial Association), Dushanbe. [In Russian]
Nenakhova, V.F., and Shpirt, M.Yak., eds., 1987, Metallogeniya i geokhimiya
uglenosnykh i slanets-soderzhaschykh tolsch SSSR. Geokhimiya elementov
[Metallogeny and geochemistry of coal-bearing and fuel shale-bearing strata of
the USSR. Geochemistry of elements]: Moscow, Nauka 256 p. [In Russian].
Nenakhova, V.F., Shpirt, M.Yak., eds., 1988, Metallogeniya i geokhimiya
uglenosnykh i slanets-soderzhaschykh tolsch SSSR. Zakonomernosti
kontsentratsii elementov i metody ikh izucheniya [Metallogeny and geochemistry
of coal-bearing and fuel shale-bearing strata of the USSR. Regularities of
elements concentration and methods of investigation]: Moscow, Nauka, 240 p.
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Technologies in the Russian Sector, Reformugol Foundation, Moscow, July 4-5,
2000: World Coal Institute Web site, www.wci-coal.com.,
I.A., ed., 1963, Ugol'niye basseyny i mestorozhdeniya yuga evropeyskoy chasti
SSSR, Tom 1 of Geologiya mestorozhdeniy uglya i goryuchikh slantsev SSSR [Coal
basins and deposits in the southern European part of the USSR, Volume 1 of
Geology of coal and combustible shale deposits of the USSR]:, Moscow, Nedra.
1963, 1210 p. [in Russian]
Ulmishek, G.F., and Steinshouer, D.W., 1998, Map showing geology, oil and gas
fields, and geologic provinces of the Former Soviet Union: U.S. Geological
Survey Open File Report 97-470E, CD-ROM.
L.M. and Bazilevich, L.P., 1935, Investigation of the Coking Process:
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