RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008
Abstract:
An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. More than 200 kilometers (km) of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the northern shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-km-long barrier island on the southern side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in-situ pore water conductivity. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Based on CRP data, low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters (m) offshore along much of the northern and southern shores of Great South Bay, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks, and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the northern shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing recharge near the shore in filled areas. Better understanding of the nature of SGD along developed and undeveloped shorelines of embayments such as this could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for nutrient overenrichment of estuaries. For more information on the surveys involved in this project, see <http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2008-007-FA> and <http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2008-037-FA>.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Bratton, John F. , and Cross, VeeAnn A. , 2012, RES2DINV format continuous resistivity profile data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York, on Sept. 22, 2008: Open-File Report 2011-1040, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cross, V.A., Bratton, J.F., Kroeger, K.D., Crusius, J., and Worley, C.R., 2012, Continuous Resistivity Profiling Data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York: Open-File Report 2011-1040, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 DVD

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.046533
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.017600
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.748283
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.725633

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Calendar_Date: 22-Sep-2008
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: Local surface
      Depth_Resolution: 0.1
      Depth_Distance_Units: meters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: Implicit coordinate

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA 02543-1598

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

To provide the linearized raw continuous resistivity profile (CRP) data collected on Sept. 22, 2008 in Great South Bay on Long Island, New York by the AGI SuperSting system in the RES2DINV format. The RES2DINV format is a common format used by researchers who work with resistivity data. Resistivity differences can be attributed to subsurface geology (conductive vs less conductive layers) and hydrogeologic conditions with fresh water exhibiting high resistivity and saline conditions showing low resistivity.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    (source 1 of 1)
    Source_Contribution:
    The continuous resistivity profile (CRP) system used on this cruise was an AGI SuperSting marine system described at the website: www.agiusa.com/marinesystem.shtml. Two different streamers were used for data collection - not simultaneously. One streamer was a 50-m streamer with an 11 electrode array with electrodes spaced 5 meters apart. The other streamer was a 15-m streamer with an 11 electrode array with electrodes spaced 1.5 meters apart. In both cases, the source electrodes are graphite, while the receiver electrodes are stainless steel. A dipole-dipole configuration was used for the data collection in which two fixed current electrodes are assigned with the measurement of voltage potential between electrode pairs in the remaining electrodes. The maximum depth below the water surface the streamer can reach is approximately the streamer length. So for the 50-m streamer, maximum depth is about 12.5 meters, while the 15 meter streamer can reach about 3.75 meters. Each line of data acquisition records several files. The two files necessary for processing are the *.stg and the *.gps file. The STG file contains the resistivity data, while the GPS file contains the navigation information. The navigation system used in concert with the CRP system is a Lowrance LMS-480M with an LGC-2000 GPS antenna and a 200 kHz fathometer transducer. The transducer also contains a temperature sensor. Lowrance indicates the speed of sound used by the system is 4800 feet/second. Both the temperature and depth information are recorded in the logged GPS file. The CRP system images the subsurface electrical properties of an estuarine, riverine or lacustrine environment. Resistivity differences can be attributed to subsurface geology (conductive vs less conductive layers) and hydrogeologic conditions with fresh water exhibiting high resistivity and saline conditions showing low resistivity.

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Nov-2010 (process 1 of 1)
    The linearized STG and DEP files generated by AGI's Marine Log Manager software (AGI SSAdmin MLM v 1.3.4.217) were converted to a format suitable for the RES2DINV processing software. The conversion was accomplished by a Visual Basic 6 program written at the USGS office in Woods Hole (AGI2res2d.exe - no version number). A more complete description of all the processing involved prior to this point can be found in the metadata for the raw resistivity data and the processed resistivity data available at <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1040/html/catalog.html>.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA 02543-1598

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov

    Data sources used in this process:
    • *lin.stg
    • *wres.dep

    Data sources produced in this process:

    • *res2d.dat

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Loke, M.H., 2000, Electrical imaging surveys for environmental and engineering studies - a practical guide to 2D and 3D surveys: University Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    The navigation system used was a Lowrance 480M with an LGC-2000 Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna. The antenna was located at the anchor point for the resistivity streamer, which is also directly above the fathometer transducer mount point. The GPS system is published to be accurate to within 10 meters.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

    All collected bathymetry values were collected by the 200 kHz Lowrance fathometer. The fathometer was mounted starboard side aft, directly below the GPS antenna and the resistivity streamer tow point. The transducer was approximately 0.30 meters below the sea surface, and this draft was not corrected for. The Lowrance manufacturer indicates the speed of sound used by the system to convert to depths is 4800 feet/second. All values are assumed to be accurate to within 1 meter.

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    All linearized resistivity data from this day were converted to the RES2DINV format.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    All the data files were checked and handled in the same manner. All data collected on this day were collected with the 15-m streamer.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
The public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA 02543-1598

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Neither the U.S. government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?

    The data are provided in a WinZip compressed file. The user must have software capable of uncompressing the archive. In addition, these data are available in a format compatible with the RES2DINV resistivity inversion software. The user must have software capable of reading this format in order to process the data.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 16-Nov-2012
Metadata author:
VeeAnn A. Cross
U.S. Geological Survey
Marine Geologist
Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Woods Hole, MA 02543-1598

(508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
(508) 457-2310 (FAX)
vatnipp@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)
Metadata extensions used:


Generated by mp version 2.9.6 on Fri Nov 16 12:24:45 2012