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Open-File Report 2011–1096

Prepared in cooperation with The Ohio State University

Results of an Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Chlorine Dioxide as a Disinfectant for Onsite Household Sewage Treatment Systems

By Christopher M. Kephart and Donald M. Stoeckel


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Scientists with the U. S. Geological Survey and The Ohio State University evaluated the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as a wastewater disinfectant for onsite household sewage treatment systems. Effectiveness of ClO2 was measured by evaluating the removal of six test microorganisms: Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain spores, somatic coliphage, and F-specific coliphage. These evaluations were done in bench-scale experiments and in a field-scale experiment where ClO2 was delivered to the sewage by use of a novel dry packet system. Results presented herein demonstrate effective inactivation of each test microorganism except for B. anthracis spores.

Posted April 2011

For additional information contact:
Christopher Kephart
Water Resources
U.S. Geological Survey
6480 Doubetree Avenue
Columbus, OH 43229-1111
Phone: 614-430-7700
Fax: 614-430-7777

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Suggested citation:

Kephart, C.M., and Stoeckel, D.M., 2011, Results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant for onsite household sewage treatment systems: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1096, 10 p., available only at





Section of Target Microorganisms

Bench-Scale Experiments

Field-Scale Trial Procedures


Bench-Scale CIO2 Inactivation Capabilities

Field-Scale CIO2 Inactivation Capabilities

References Cited

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