A nested-intensity design for surveying plant diversity

Biodiversity and Conservation
By:  and 



Managers of natural landscapes need cost-efficient, accurate, and precise systems to inventory plant diversity. We investigated a nested-intensity sampling design to assess local and landscape-scale heterogeneity of plant species richness in aspen stands in southern Colorado, USA. The nested-intensity design used three vegetation sampling techniques: the Modified-Whittaker, a 1000-m2 multiple-scale plot (n = 8); a 100-m2 multiple-scale Intensive plot (n = 15); and a 100-m2 single-scale Extensive plot (n = 28). The large Modified-Whittaker plot (1000 m2) recorded greater species richness per plot than the other two sampling techniques (P < 0.001), estimated cover of a greater number of species in 1-m2 subplots (P < 0.018), and captured 32 species missed by the smaller, more numerous 100-m2 plots of the other designs. The Intensive plots extended the environmental gradient sampled, capturing 17 species missed by the other techniques, and improved species–area calculations. The greater number of Extensive plots further expanded the gradient sampled, and captured 18 additional species. The multi-scale Modified-Whittaker and Intensive designs allowed quantification of the slopes of species–area curves in the single-scale Extensive plots. Multiple linear regressions were able to predict the slope of species–area curves (adj R2 = 0.64, P < 0.001) at each Extensive plot, allowing comparison of species richness at each sample location. Comparison of species–accumulation curves generated with each technique suggested that small, single-scale plot techniques might be very misleading because they underestimate species richness by missing locally rare species at every site. A combination of large and small multi-scale and single-scale plots greatly improves our understanding of native and exotic plant diversity patterns.

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title A nested-intensity design for surveying plant diversity
Series title Biodiversity and Conservation
DOI 10.1023/A:1021939010065
Volume 12
Issue 2
Year Published 2003
Language English
Publisher Springer
Contributing office(s) Fort Collins Science Center
Description 24 p.
First page 255
Last page 278
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