Deep-ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules

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Ferromanganese crusts and nodules may provide a future resource for a large variety of metals, including many that are essential for emerging high- and green-technology applications. A brief review of nodules and crusts provides a setting for a discussion on the latest (past 10 years) research related to the geochemistry of sequestration of metals from seawater. Special attention is given to cobalt, nickel, titanium, rare earth elements and yttrium, bismuth, platinum, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium, tellurium, molybdenum, niobium, zirconium, and lithium. Sequestration from seawater by sorption, surface oxidation, substitution, and precipitation of discrete phases is discussed. Mechanisms of metal enrichment reflect modes of formation of the crusts and nodules, such as hydrogenetic (from seawater), diagenetic (from porewaters), and mixed diagenetic–hydrogenetic processes.
Publication type Book chapter
Publication Subtype Book Chapter
Title Deep-ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.01111-6
Edition Second
Volume 13
Year Published 2014
Language English
Publisher Elsevier
Contributing office(s) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Description 19 p.
Larger Work Type Book
Larger Work Subtype Monograph
Larger Work Title Treatise on geochemistry
First page 273
Last page 291
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