Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

Journal of Wildlife Diseases
By: , and 



Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

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Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA
Series title Journal of Wildlife Diseases
DOI 10.7589/2013-04-100
Volume 50
Issue 2
Year Published 2014
Language English
Publisher Wildlife Disease Association
Contributing office(s) National Wildlife Health Center
Description 11 p.
First page 224
Last page 234
Country United States
State Colorado, Utah
County Chaffee, Garfield(UT), Gunnison, Moffat, Larimer
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
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