Climate change




Climate change (including climate variability) refers to regional or global changes in mean climate state or in patterns of climate variability over decades to millions of years often identified using statistical methods and sometimes referred to as changes in long-term weather conditions (IPCC, 2012). Climate is influenced by changes in continent-ocean configurations due to plate tectonic processes, variations in Earth’s orbit, axial tilt and precession, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, solar variability, volcanism, internal variability resulting from interactions between the atmosphere, oceans and ice (glaciers, small ice caps, ice sheets, and sea ice), and anthropogenic activities such as greenhouse gas emissions and land use and their effects on carbon cycling.

Publication type Book chapter
Publication Subtype Book Chapter
Title Climate change
DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-8801-4_37
Year Published 2016
Language English
Publisher Springer
Contributing office(s) Eastern Geology and Paleoclimate Science Center
Description 7 p.
Larger Work Type Book
Larger Work Subtype Monograph
Larger Work Title Encyclopedia of estuaries
First page 122
Last page 128
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