The paradigm of grizzly bear restoration in North America

Edited by: David S. MaehrReed F. Noss, and J.L. Larkin


  • The Publications Warehouse does not have links to digital versions of this publication at this time
  • Download citation as: RIS | Dublin Core


Grizzly bear restoration and recovery is a controversial, highly politicized process. By 1959, when the Craigheads began their pioneering work on Yellowstone grizzly bears, the species had been reduced to a remnant of its historic range. Prior to the colonization of North America by Europeans, the grizzly lived in relatively pristine habitats with aboriginal Native Americans. As civilization expanded, humans changed the face of the landscape, converting grizzly bear habitat to farms and ranches. People killed grizzlies to protect livestock and eliminate a perceived threat to human safety. In concert, habitat loss and direct human-caused mortality had effectively eliminated the grizzly from 95 percent of its historic range in the conterminous United States by the 1920s (Servheen 1989). Grizzly bear numbers had been reduced nearly 98 percent by 1975 when the species was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (USFWS 1993).


Publication type Book chapter
Publication Subtype Book Chapter
Title The paradigm of grizzly bear restoration in North America
ISBN 978-1559638173
Edition 2nd
Year Published 2002
Language English
Publisher Island Press
Publisher location Washington, D.C.
Contributing office(s) Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center
Description 5 p.
Larger Work Type Book
Larger Work Subtype Monograph
Larger Work Title Large Mammal Restoration in North America: ecological and sociological considerations in the 21st century
First page 225
Last page 229
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details