Kelp, cobbles, and currents: Biologic reduction of coarse grain entrainment stress

University of California, Santa Cruz; Wahington Sea Grant
By: , and 



Models quantifying the onset of sediment motion do not typically account for the effect of biotic processes because they are difficult to isolate and quantify in relation to physical processes. Here we investigate an example of the interaction of kelp (Order Laminariales) and coarse sediment transport in the coastal zone, where it is possible to directly quantify and test its effect. Kelp is ubiquitous along rocky coastlines and the impact on ecosystems has been well studied. We develop a physical model to explore the reduction in critical shear stress of large cobbles colonized by Nereocystis luetkeana, or bull kelp. Observations of coarse sediment motion at a site in the Strait of Juan de Fuca (northwest United States–Canada boundary channel) confirm the model prediction and show that kelp reduces the critical stress required for transport of a given grain size by as much as 92%, enabling annual coarse sediment transport rates comparable to those of fluvial systems. We demonstrate that biology is fundamental to the physical processes that shape the coastal zone in this setting.

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Kelp, cobbles, and currents: Biologic reduction of coarse grain entrainment stress
Series title Geology
DOI 10.1130/G36616.1
Volume 43
Issue 6
Year Published 2015
Language English
Publisher Geological Society of America
Contributing office(s) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Description 4 p.
First page 543
Last page 546
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
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