Sea otter population collapse in southwest Alaska: Assessing ecological covariates, consequences, and causal factors

Ecological Monographs
By: , and 



Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in southwest Alaska declined substantially between about 1990 and the most recent set of surveys in 2015. Here we report changes in the distribution and abundance of sea otters, and covarying patterns in reproduction, mortality, body size and condition, diet and foraging behavior, food availability, health profiles, and exposure to environmental contaminants over this 25-yr period. The population decline, which resulted in densities on the order of 5% of environmental carrying capacity, ranged from Attu Island in the west to about Castle Cape (on the south side of the Alaska Peninsula) in the east. Remaining sea otters moved closer to shore and into shallow, protected habitats. Reproductive rates appeared unchanged with the decline. Although the demographic cause of the decline was clearly elevated mortality, stranded carcasses were rare or absent. The net rate of energy gain by foraging sea otters, body length and condition, and prey biomass density, all increased after the decline and varied inversely with sea otter population density beyond the area of decline. Sea otters within the area of decline showed no increases in health anomalies, disease, contaminant exposure, or abnormal gene transcription patterns as compared to animals outside the area of decline. These collective findings are inconsistent with nutritional limitation, disease, or environmental contaminants, and consistent with predation (or possibly some other density-independent factor) as the reason for the sea otter population decline. Our approach and analyses provide a broad conceptual template for thinking about and assessing the causes of wildlife population declines.

Study Area

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Sea otter population collapse in southwest Alaska: Assessing ecological covariates, consequences, and causal factors
Series title Ecological Monographs
DOI 10.1002/ecm.1472
Volume 91
Issue 4
Year Published 2021
Language English
Publisher Ecological Society of America
Contributing office(s) Alaska Science Center Biology MFEB, Western Ecological Research Center
Description e01472, 55 p.
Country United States
State Alaska
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details