Decadal to centennial variations in sediment availability are a primary driver of coastal change within barrier systems. Models help explore how barrier morphology relates to past changes in magnitude of sediment availability, but this requires insights and validation from field efforts. In this study, we investigate the progradation of Anclote Key via its morphostratigraphy, a presently dynamic barrier on the Central Florida Gulf Coast. The results of our field efforts, including vibracores, ground-penetrating radar scans, and optically stimulated luminescence dating of sediments, reveal that Anclote Key has gone through at least two phases of sustained island-scale progradation, with an intervening episode of transgression followed by relative stability. We show that these shifts were likely driven by relatively small changes in shoreface sediment availability owing to the island’s limited accommodation and suggest that Anclote Key may have been relatively isolated from the alongshore sediment supply of nearby barriers prior to the late 20th century.