Availability of Groundwater from the Volcanic Aquifers of the Hawaiian Islands

Fact Sheet 2023-3010
By:  and 



The islands of Hawaiʻi were built by basaltic shield volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean. These volcanoes formed aquifers that supply hundreds of millions of gallons of fresh water per day to the islands’ residents and diverse industries. Groundwater discharge from the volcanic aquifers to streams and the coast also supports traditional practices and ecosystems. The aquifers' capacity to yield fresh groundwater is limited, however, by limitations placed on the consequences of groundwater withdrawal, such as water-table depression, rise of saltwater, and reduction of groundwater to streams, springs, and the ocean. The magnitude of these consequences will change if groundwater recharge changes as a result of climate and land-use changes. This fact sheet summarizes groundwater availability and its relation to the consequences of groundwater withdrawals in the volcanic aquifers of Hawaiʻi. This topic was addressed in detail in the Hawaiʻi Volcanic Aquifer Study (https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1876).

Suggested Citation

Izuka, S.K., and Rotzoll, K., 2023, Availability of groundwater from the volcanic aquifers of the Hawaiian Islands: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2023-3010, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20233010.

ISSN: 2327-6932 (online)

Study Area

Table of Contents

  • Principal Groundwater Settings in Hawai‘i's Volcanic Aquifers
  • Groundwater Availability is Limited by the Consequences of Withdrawal
  • Groundwater Availability Depends on Acceptable Limits to Consequences
  • Reference Cited
  • Further Reading
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Availability of groundwater from the volcanic aquifers of the Hawaiian Islands
Series title Fact Sheet
Series number 2023-3010
DOI 10.3133/fs20233010
Year Published 2023
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Pacific Islands Water Science Center
Description 4 p.
Country United States
State Hawaii
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details