Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

Open-File Report 2002-189
By:  and 



Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

Study Area

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 2002-189
DOI 10.3133/ofr02189
Edition Version 1.0
Year Published 2002
Language ENGLISH
Publisher Geological Survey (U.S.)
Contributing office(s) Western Mineral Resources
Description Report: 174 p.; ReadMe; Metadata; Appendix
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) Y
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details