Optimizing Historical Preservation Under Climate Change—An Overview of the Optimal Preservation Model and Pilot Testing at Cape Lookout National Seashore

Open-File Report 2018-1180
Prepared in cooperation with the National Park Service
By: , and 



Adapting cultural resources to climate-change effects challenges traditional cultural resource decision making because some adaptation strategies can negatively affect the integrity of cultural resources. Yet, the inevitability of climate-change effects—even given the uncertain timing of those effects—necessitates that managers begin prioritizing resources for climate-change adaptation. Prioritization imposes an additional management challenge: managers must make difficult tradeoffs to achieve desired management outcomes related to maximizing the resource values. This report provides an overview of a pilot effort to integrate vulnerability (exposure and sensitivity), significance, and use potential metrics in a decision framework—the Optimal Preservation (OptiPres) Model—to inform climate adaptation planning of a subset of buildings in historic districts (listed on the National Register of Historic Places) at Cape Lookout National Seashore. The OptiPres Model uses a numerical optimization algorithm to assess the timing and application of a portfolio of adaptation actions that could most effectively preserve an assortment of buildings associated with different histories, intended uses, and construction design and materials over a 30-year planning horizon. The outputs from the different budget scenarios, though not prescriptive, provide visualizations of and insights to the sequence and type of optimal actions and the changes to individual building resource values and accumulated resource values. Study findings suggest the OptiPres Model has planning utility related to fiscal efficiency by identifying a budget threshold necessary to maintain the historical significance and use potential of historical buildings while reducing vulnerability (collectively, the accumulated resource value). Specifically, findings identify that a minimum of the industry standard ($222,000 annually for the 17 buildings) is needed to maintain the current accumulated resource value. Additionally, results suggest that additional appropriations provided on regular intervals when annual appropriations are at the industry standard are nearly as efficient as annual appropriations at twice the rate of industry standards and increase the amount of accumulated resource values to nearly the same level. However, periodic increases in funding may increase the risks posed to buildings from the probability of a natural hazard (that is, damage or loss from a hurricane). Suggestions for model refinements include developing standardized cost estimations for adaptation actions based on square footage and building materials, developing metrics to quantify the historical integrity of buildings, integrating social values data, including additional objectives (such as public safety) in the model, refining vulnerability data and transforming the data to include risk assessment, and incorporating stochastic events (that is, hurricane and wind effects) into the model.

Suggested Citation

Seekamp, E., Post van der Burg, M., Fatorić, S., Eaton, M.J., Xiao, X., and McCreary, A., 2019, Optimizing historical preservation under climate change—An overview of the optimal preservation model and pilot testing at Cape Lookout National Seashore: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1180, 46 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181180.

ISSN: 2331-1258 (online)

Study Area

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Study Area
  • Model Development
  • The Optimal Preservation Model
  • Comparing Scenarios
  • Insights From The Pilot Study
  • Considerations For Advancing The Optipres Model
  • References Cited
  • Appendix 1. Optimal Preservation Model Objectives, Attributes, Weights, Actions, and Costs
  • Appendix 2. Value of Condition, Remaining Significance, and Use Potential for 17 Buildings Among Different Scenarios
  • Appendix 3. Computer Code for Optimal Preservation Model
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Optimizing historical preservation under climate change—An overview of the optimal preservation model and pilot testing at Cape Lookout National Seashore
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 2018-1180
DOI 10.3133/ofr20181180
Year Published 2019
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Southeast Climate Science Center
Description vii, 46 p.
Country United States
State North Carolina
Other Geospatial Cape Lookout National Seashore
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details