Groundwater-Level Monitoring from January 17 to March 3, 2022, Hālawa Area, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

Open-File Report 2022-1069
Prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Navy
By: , and 



A reported fuel release in November 2021 at the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility within the naval reservation at Red Hill led to the shutdown of several production wells in the Hālawa area, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Red Hill Shaft—one of the high-capacity production wells that shut down—was reactivated on January 29, 2022. Submersible pressure transducers were deployed at 20 wells in the Hālawa area to measure groundwater levels and evaluate the regional groundwater-level response to the resumption of groundwater withdrawals from Red Hill Shaft. Groundwater levels measured in wells from January 17 to March 3, 2022, ranged between 16 and 20 feet at all sites and generally between 17 and 19 feet at most sites. Average groundwater-level decreases measured in wells 10 days after the January 29, 2022, resumption of withdrawal from Red Hill Shaft ranged from about 0.1 to 0.4 foot. In general, greatest decreases in groundwater levels occurred in wells closest to Red Hill Shaft.

The groundwater-level data contain uncertainty because of several potential sources of error associated with (1) the accuracy of the measuring tapes and submersible pressure transducers used, (2) the accuracy of the measuring-point altitude at the top of each well, (3) the stability of the submersible pressure transducers’ suspension depth in each well, (4) well plumbness and alignment, and (5) human error. Because of the potential sources of error, comparability of groundwater-level data may be affected. Some sources of uncertainty, including the accuracy of measuring-point altitudes, can be addressed and lead to improved accuracy and comparability of groundwater levels. Data collected for this study are available in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database.

Suggested Citation

Nakama, R.K., Mitchell, J.N., and Oki, D.S., 2022, Groundwater-level monitoring from January 17 to March 3, 2022, Hālawa area, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2022–1069, 29 p.,

ISSN: 2331-1258 (online)

Study Area

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments  
  • Abstract  
  • Introduction  
  • Purpose and Scope  
  • Methods  
  • Data  
  • Limitations  
  • Summary  
  • References Cited 
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Groundwater-level monitoring from January 17 to March 3, 2022, Hālawa area, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 2022-1069
DOI 10.3133/ofr20221069
Year Published 2022
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Pacific Islands Water Science Center
Description Report: vi, 29 p.; Data Release
Country United States
State Hawaii
Other Geospatial Hālawa Area
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details