Volcanic gas

Open-File Report 95-85
By:  and 



In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes.

The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth.

Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Volcanic gas
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 95-85
DOI 10.3133/ofr9585
Year Published 1995
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Contributing office(s) Volcano Science Center
Description 2 p.
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
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