This chapter has been modified from original material published in Soulard and others (2007), entitled “Land-cover trends of the Southern California Mountains ecoregion” (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5235). The Southern California Mountains Ecoregion (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) encompasses approximately 17,871 km² (6,900 mi²) of land located entirely within California. The ecoregion is bounded on the far north by the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, on the east by the Mojave Basin and Range Ecoregion, on the southeast by the Sonoran Basin and Range Ecoregion, and on the west and north by Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion. In addition, the northern part of the ecoregion is separated from the Central California Valley Ecoregion by a narrow strip of the Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion (fig. 1).