The Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion, which covers approximately 102,110 km2 (39,425 mi2), is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). Natural vegetation includes chaparral (for example, manzanita, Arctostaphylos spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) woodlands with extensive grassland and shrubland cover. The low mountains and foothills of the ecoregion border or parallel the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to Point Reyes, California, and continue inland surrounding the Central California Valley Ecoregion (fig. 1). These mountains and hills are interrupted by limited areas of flat land generally used for development or agriculture. The largest developed area in the ecoregion is the Los Angeles Basin, followed by the San Francisco Bay area and the San Diego metropolitan area (fig. 1). The largest agricultural area is the Salinas River valley south of Monterey, California. Most of the ecoregion consists of rangelands classified as grassland/ shrubland and forest land covers (figs. 1,2).