The Effects of Management Practices on Grassland Birds—Willet (Tringa semipalmata inornata)

Professional Paper 1842-I
By: , and 



Keys to Willet (Tringa semipalmata inornata) management include providing large expanses of native grasslands and wetland complexes. Wetland complexes should contain a diversity of wetland sizes and classes, such as ephemeral, temporary, seasonal, semipermanent, and permanent wetlands, as well as intermittent streams. Willets use wetlands of various salinities. Willets require short, sparse upland grasslands for nesting and foraging and wetland complexes for foraging. Broods use taller, denser grass cover than do nesting adults. Willets have been reported to use habitats with less than or equal to 70 centimeters (cm) average vegetation height, 4–23 cm visual obstruction reading, 15 percent bare ground, 38 percent litter cover, and 1–9 cm litter depth. 

Suggested Citation

Shaffer, J.A., Igl, L.D., Johnson, D.H., Sondreal, M.L., Goldade, C.M., Parkin, B.D., Thiele, J.P., and Euliss, B.R., 2019, The effects of management practices on grassland birds—Willet (Tringa semipalmata inornata), chap. I of Johnson, D.H., Igl, L.D., Shaffer, J.A., and DeLong, J.P., eds., The effects of management practices on grassland birds: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1842, 9 p.,

ISSN: 2330-7102 (online)

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Capsule Statement
  • Breeding Range
  • Suitable Habitat
  • Area Requirements and Landscape Associations
  • Brood Parasitism by Cowbirds and Other Species
  • Breeding-Season Phenology and Site Fidelity
  • Species’ Response to Management
  • Management Recommendations from the Literature
  • References
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title The effects of management practices on grassland birds—Willet (Tringa semipalmata inornata)
Series title Professional Paper
Series number 1842
Chapter I
DOI 10.3133/pp1842I
Year Published 2019
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Description iv, 9 p.
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details