Geologic Map of Olympus Mons Caldera, Mars

Scientific Investigations Map 3470
Prepared for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration



The Mars volcano, Olympus Mons, is probably the best known extraterrestrial volcano. The summit forms a nested caldera with six overlapping collapse pits that collectively measure ~65 x ~80 kilometers (km). Numerous wrinkle ridges and graben occur on the caldera floor, and topographic data indicate >1.2 km of elevation change since the formation of the floor as a series of lava lakes. The paths of lava flows on the south and southeast flanks do not conform to present-day topography. Mapping at a scale of 1:200,000 shows that the summit area displays a complex volcanic history that has  numerous similarities to terrestrial shield volcanoes. Pangboche crater is a large (~10-km-diameter) crater of impact origin that lies on the south flank of the caldera and, because of the elevation and lack of volatiles, it displays numerous features more similar to fresh lunar craters than to impact craters on Mars.

Suggested Citation

Mouginis-Mark, P.J., 2021, Geologic map of Olympus Mons caldera, Mars: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3470, 6 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:200,000,

ISSN: 2329-132X (online)

ISSN: 2329-1311 (print)

Table of Contents

  • Introduction  
  • Base Map and Data  
  • Mapping Methods  
  • Age Determinations  
  • Geology  
  • Acknowledgments  
  • References Cited
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Geologic map of Olympus Mons caldera, Mars
Series title Scientific Investigations Map
Series number 3470
DOI 10.3133/sim3470
Year Published 2021
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Astrogeology Science Center
Description Report: iv, 6 p.; Metadata; Read Me; 1 Sheet: 38.06 x 40.11 inches
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) Y
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details