Distribution and variation of arsenic in Wisconsin surface soils, with data on other trace elements

Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5202
Prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and Wisconsin Department of Health Services



A total of 664 soil samples distributed among different geographic regions and soil types were collected across Wisconsin to describe the distribution of arsenic relative to parent material, soil texture, and drainage class. Soils from 6 inches in depth were composited, digested in aqua regia, and analyzed for 17 trace elements. Observed soil arsenic concentrations range from a high of 39 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) to less than the laboratory detection limit of 1 mg/kg. Ten samples with soil arsenic concentrations greater than 8.5 mg/kg were determined to be significantly separate from the main cluster of the dataset. With these outliers removed, overall soil arsenic concentrations in Wisconsin have a median value of 1.8 mg/kg, and the 95-percent upper confidence limit of the mean is 2.4 mg/kg. Soils with sandy glacial outwash as a parent material have a lower median arsenic concentration (1.0 mg/kg) than soils forming in other parent materials (1.5 to 3.0 mg/kg). Soil texture and drainage category also influence median arsenic concentration. Finer grained soils have a higher observed range of concentrations. For loamy and loess-dominated soil groups, drainage category influences the median arsenic concentration and observed range of values, but a consistent relationship within the data is not apparent. Statistical analysis of the 16 other elements are presented in this report, but the relationships of concentrations to soil properties or geographic areas were not examined.

Study Area

Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Distribution and variation of arsenic in Wisconsin surface soils, with data on other trace elements
Series title Scientific Investigations Report
Series number 2011-5202
DOI 10.3133/sir20115202
Edition First posted March 15, 2012; Revised February 25, 2013
Year Published 2012
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Wisconsin Water Science Center
Description v, 13 p.; Appendix
Time Range Start 2006-09-01
Time Range End 2007-11-30
Country United States
State Wisconsin
Other Geospatial Copper Falls Formation;Green Bay Lobe;Lake Michigan Lobe;Central Sands;Driftless Area;Des Moines Lobe
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) Y
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details