Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams, 2014 and 2015

Scientific Investigations Report 2016-5113
Prepared in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment
By: , and 



Dissolved oxygen concentrations in streams are affected by physical, chemical, and biological factors in the water column and streambed, and are an important factor for the survival of aquatic organisms. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) rates in Kansas streams are not well understood. During 2014 and 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, measured SOD at eight stream sites in eastern Kansas to quantify SOD rates and variability with respect to season, land use, and bottom-sediment characteristics. Sediment oxygen demand rates (SODT) ranged from 0.01 to 3.15 grams per square meter per day at the ambient temperature of the measurements. The summer mean SOD rate was 3.0-times larger than the late fall mean rate, likely because of increased biological activity at warm water temperatures. Given the substantial amount of variability in SOD rates possible within sites, heterogeneity of substrate type is an important consideration when designing SOD studies and interpreting the results. Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams was correlated with land use and streambed-sediment characteristics, though the strength of relations varied seasonally. The small number of study sites precluded a more detailed analysis. The effect of basin land use and streambed sediment characteristics on SOD is currently (2016) not well understood, and there may be many contributing factors including basin influences on water quality that affect biogeochemical cycles and the biological communities supported by the stream.

Suggested Citation

Foster, G.M., King, L.R., and Graham, J.L., 2016, Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams, 2014 and 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5113, 19 p.,

ISSN: 2328-0328 (online)

Study Area

Table of Contents

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Purpose And Scope
  • Description Of Study Area
  • Methods
  • Sediment Oxygen Demand In Eastern Kansas Streams
  • Summary
  • References Cited


Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams, 2014 and 2015
Series title Scientific Investigations Report
Series number 2016-5113
DOI 10.3133/sir20165113
Year Published 2016
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Kansas Water Science Center
Description Report: v, 19 p.; Data Release
Country United States
State Kansas
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) Y
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details