Hydrologic Effects of Possible Changes in Water-Supply Withdrawals from, and Effluent Recharge to, the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey
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- Data Release: USGS data release - MODFLOW-2000 model used to evaluate the effects of possible changes in water-supply withdrawals from, and effluent recharge to, the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey
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Winslow Township and the Camden County Municipal Utility Authority (CCMUA) developed a plan to shut down the Winslow sewage-treatment facility and associated effluent infiltration facility and transfer the effluent to the CCMUA sewage-treatment facility on the Delaware River in Camden, New Jersey. Winslow Township reduced groundwater withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system to offset groundwater recharge lost with the cessation of effluent infiltration. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Winslow Township and the CCMUA, collected data to evaluate conditions prior to cessation of effluent infiltration and installed two continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. Streamflow measurements also were made at two low-flow partial-record sites, and groundwater levels were measured in 17 wells at high and low water-level periods (May and September 2010). A groundwater-flow model provides estimated changes in base flow of the Great Egg Harbor River under several groundwater-withdrawal and effluent infiltration scenarios.
Water levels were measured in an observation well 480 feet (ft) from the infiltration lagoons during 1971–2010. A downward trend in water levels in the well prior to 1985 is attributed in part to increased impervious surfaces and groundwater withdrawals associated with development in the area that began in the early 1970s. From late 1985 to 2010, there was an upward trend in water levels in the well that is attributed to the construction of nearby effluent infiltration lagoons in 1985 and the increasing rate of effluent infiltration during the period. Recent and historical measurements made at the four surface-water sites were correlated with same-day discharges measured at three nearby index stations to estimate continuous low-flow record at the sites. Effects on base flow caused by reductions in groundwater withdrawals or the cessation of effluent infiltration in Winslow Township could not be ascertained from the available data with the statistical and analysis methods used.
Groundwater discharge to streams (base flow) was simulated with a groundwater-flow model of the Great Egg Harbor and Mullica River Basins. Simulated monthly base flows using 2008–10 withdrawal rates and effluent recharge (Scenario 1) are generally about 1.5 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) greater than simulated base flows using 2003–07 withdrawal rates (Baseline Scenario) because of the 1.57 Mgal/d reduction in average withdrawals by Winslow Township from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system from 2003–07 to 2008–10. Simulated monthly base flows using 2008–10 withdrawals but without effluent infiltration (Scenario 2) are very similar to, but typically slightly lower than, Baseline Scenario base flows.
Three hypothetical future distributions of groundwater withdrawals from existing Winslow Township wells are simulated, each without effluent infiltration and using the same groundwater withdrawal rate as Scenario 2, but with different hypothetical distributions of withdrawals among existing Winslow Township wells. The Scenario 3 and 4 base flows are greater than the Baseline Scenario base flows in all months, and the Scenario 5 base flows are less than the Baseline Scenario base flows in all months. The simulation results indicate that a reduction in average withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system by 1.57 Mgal/d offsets the reduction of effluent infiltration by about the same rate, resulting in nearly unchanged base flows in the Great Egg Harbor River near Blue Anchor (01410820).
Carleton, G.B., and Pope, D.A., 2023, Hydrologic effects of possible changes in water-supply withdrawals from, and effluent recharge to, the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2023–5002, 16 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20235002.
ISSN: 2328-0328 (online)
Table of Contents
- Analysis of Groundwater Levels and Surface-Water Flow
- Simulated Base Flow in the Great Egg Harbor River
- Summary and Conclusions
- References Cited
|USGS Numbered Series
|Hydrologic effects of possible changes in water-supply withdrawals from, and effluent recharge to, the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey
|Scientific Investigations Report
|U.S. Geological Survey
|New Jersey Water Science Center
|Report: vii, 16 p.; Data Release
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