West Nile Virus (Avian) Case Definition for Wildlife

Techniques and Methods 19-C1
Prepared in cooperation with the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative
By: , and 



Diagnostic laboratories receive carcasses and samples for diagnostic evaluation and pathogen/toxin detection. Case definitions bring clarity and consistency to the evaluation process. Their use within and between organizations allows more uniform reporting of diseases and etiologic agents. The intent of a case definition is to provide scientifically based criteria for determining (a) if an individual carcass has a specific disease and degree of confidence in that diagnosis and (b) if there is evidence of a pathogen or toxin in a carcass or sample (for example, swab, tissue sample, skin scraping, blood/serum sample, environmental sample, or other). This case definition is specific to West Nile virus and applies to all avian species.

Suggested Citation

Lair, S., Shearn-Bochsler, V., and Zimmer, M., 2024, West Nile virus (avian) case definition for wildlife: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 19, chap. C1, 10 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm19C1.

ISSN: 2328-7055 (online)

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Scope of the Case Definition
  • Case Definition Criteria
  • Case Classification
  • Quality Assurance Review Schedule
  • Impact
  • References Cited
  • Glossary
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title West Nile virus (avian) case definition for wildlife
Series title Techniques and Methods
Series number 19-C1
DOI 10.3133/tm19C1
Year Published 2024
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) National Wildlife Health Center
Description v, 18 p.
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details