Avian Botulism Case Definition for Wildlife

Techniques and Methods 19-E1
Prepared in cooperation with the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative
By:  and 



Diagnostic laboratories receive carcasses and samples for diagnostic evaluation and pathogen/toxin detection. Case definitions bring clarity and consistency to the evaluation process. Their use within and between organizations allows more uniform reporting of diseases and etiologic agents.

The intent of a case definition is to provide scientifically based criteria for determining (a) if an individual carcass has a specific disease and degree of confidence in that diagnosis and (b) if there is evidence of a pathogen or toxin in a carcass or sample (for example, swab, tissue sample, skin scraping, blood/serum sample, environmental sample, or other). This case definition is specific to avian botulism and applies to all avian species.

Suggested Citation

Lankton, J.S., and Stevens, B., 2024, Avian botulism case definition for wildlife: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 19, chap. E1, 8 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm19E1.

ISSN: 2328-7055 (online)

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Scope of the Case Definition
  • Case Definition Criteria
  • Case Classification
  • Quality-Assurance Review Schedule
  • Impact
  • References Cited
  • Glossary
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Avian botulism case definition for wildlife
Series title Techniques and Methods
Series number 19-E1
DOI 10.3133/tm19E1
Year Published 2024
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) National Wildlife Health Center
Description v, 6 p.
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details