U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3160
In 2000 and 2001, the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium obtained 1 pulse/m2 lidar data for about 65 percent of the Uncas 7.5’ quadrangle. For a brief description of LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and this data acquisition program, see Haugerud and others (2003). This map combines geologic interpretation (mostly by Haugerud and Tabor) of the 6-ft (2-m) lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) with the geology depicted on the Preliminary Geologic Map of the Uncas 7.5’ Quadrangle, Clallam and Jefferson Counties, Washington, by Peter J. Haeussler and others (1999).
The Uncas quadrangle in the northeastern Olympic Peninsula covers the transition from the accreted terranes of the Olympic Mountains on the west to the Tertiary and Quaternary basin fills of the Puget Lowland to the east. Elevations in the map area range from sea level at Port Discovery to 4,116 ft (1,255 m) on the flank of the Olympic Mountains to the southwest. Previous geologic mapping within and marginal to the Uncas quadrangle includes reports by Cady and others (1972), Brown and others (1960), Tabor and Cady (1978a), Yount and Gower (1991), and Yount and others (1993). Paleontologic and stratigraphic investigations by University of Washington graduate students (Allison, 1959; Thoms, 1959; Sherman, 1960; Hamlin, 1962; Spencer, 1984) also encompass parts of the Uncas quadrangle. Haeussler and Wells mapped in February 1998, following preliminary mapping by Yount and Gower in 1976 and 1979. The description of surficial map units follows Yount and others (1993) and Booth and Waldron (2004). Bedrock map units are modified from Yount and Gower (1991) and Spencer (1984). We used the geologic time scale of Gradstein and others (2005).
The Uncas quadrangle lies in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction zone, about 6.25 mi (10 km) east of the Cascadia accretionary complex exposed in the core of the Olympic Mountains (Tabor and Cady, 1978b). Underthrusting of the accretionary complex beneath the forearc uplifted and tilted eastward the Coast Range basalt basement and overlying marginal basin strata, which comprise most of the rocks of the Uncas quadrangle. The Eocene submarine and subaerial tholeiitic basalt of the Crescent Formation on the Olympic Peninsula is thought to be the exposed mafic basement of the Coast Range, which was considered by Snavely and others (1968) to be an oceanic terrane accreted to the margin in Eocene time. In this interpretation, the Coast Range basalt terrane may have originated as an oceanic plateau or by oblique marginal rifting, but its subsequent emplacement history was complex (Wells and others, 1984). Babcock and others (1992) and Haeussler and others (2003) favor the interpretation that the basalts were the product of an oceanic spreading center interacting with the continental margin. Regardless of their origin, onlapping strata in southern Oregon indicate that the Coast Range basalts were attached to North America by 50 Ma; but on southern Vancouver Island, where the terrane-bounding Leech River Fault is exposed, Brandon and Vance (1992) concluded that suturing to North America occurred in the broad interval between 42 and 24 Ma. After emplacement of the Coast Range basalt terrane, the Cascadia accretionary wedge developed by frontal accretion and underplating (Tabor and Cady, 1978b; Clowes and others, 1987). Domal uplift of the part of the accretionary complex beneath the Olympic Mountains occurred after ~18 Ma (Brandon and others, 1998). Continental and alpine glaciation during Quaternary time reshaped the uplifted rocks of the Olympic Mountains.
Last modified September 6, 2011
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Tabor, R.W., Haeussler, P.J., Haugerud, R.A., and Wells, R.E., 2011, Lidar-revised geologic map of the Uncas 7.5’ quadrangle, Clallam and Jefferson Counties, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3160, scale 1:24,000, 9 p., and GIS data.