USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023

Prepared in cooperation with the National Cave and Karst Research Institute and Hoffman Environmental Research Center and Center for Cave and Karst Studies at Western Kentucky University

U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008

Edited by Eve L. Kuniansky

U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023, 142 pages (Published online, May 2008)

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[Page numbers below are from the complete report's PDF file.]

Introduction and Acknowledgments ...1

Agenda, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Workshop, May 27-29, 2008 ...3

National Programs ...8

Overview of National Park Service policies for cave and karst management by Dale Pate ...8

National Cave and Karst Research Institute: Partner for the USGS by Penelope J. Boston and George Veni ...12

National Cave and Karst Research Institute's Karst Information Portal by E. Spencer Fleury ...14

Mammoth Cave International Center for Science and Learning by Rickard S. Toomey, III, Shannon Trimboli, Blaine Ferrell, Bob Ward, and Mike Adams ...15

Updating the USGS Karst Interest Group website by converting it into a dynamic web application by Bradley D. Garner and Barbara J. Mahler ...16

Karst Mapping ...17

Karst regions of the world (KROW): Global karst datasets and maps to advance the protection of karst species and habitats worldwide by Emily Hollingsworth, Van Brahana, Ethan Inlander, and Michael Slay ...17

Characterizing regional karst types under the framework of the new National Karst Map by David J. Weary, Daniel H. Doctor, Jack B. Epstein, and Randall C. Orndorff ...25

A karst aquifer map for the United States--Is it possible? by Daniel H. Doctor, David J. Weary, Jack B. Epstein, and Randall C. Orndorff ...34

Karst Aquifer Systems ...37

Tectonic control of hypogene speleogenesis in the southern Ozarks--Implications for NAWQA and beyond by Rodney Tennyson, Jim Terry, Van Brahana, Phil Hays, and Erik Pollock ...37

Hydrologic characterization of a karst spring in north-central Arkansas by Rheannon M. Scheiderer and Joel M. Galloway ...47

Analysis of methods for estimating continuous flows from Upper Floridan Aquifer springs by Nicasio Sepúlveda ...49

Estimating recharge to heterogeneous fractured-rock and karst aquifer systems in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia by George E. Harlow, Jr., David L. Nelms, Richard M. Yager, Mark D. Kozar, Ward E. Sanford, and Roger M. Moberg ...50

Impact of 1998-2002 drought on the karst aquifers of Clarke County in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia by David L. Nelms and Roger M. Moberg ...51

Ground-water/surface-water relations and water quality within the Mammoth Spring watershed, Dixie National Forest, Garfield and Iron Counties, Utah, by Lawrence E. Spangler ...52

Natural Resources and Karst Ecosystems ...55

The effects of land-use change on an Ozark cave system : A paired study of Civil War and Copperhead Caves by Jonathan A. Gillip, Phillip D. Hays, and Joel M. Galloway ...55

Karst water resources in southwest China: Case study from the east plateau, Mengzi and Kaiyuan Counties, Yunnan, China, by Chris Groves, Jiang Yongjun, Pat Kambesis, Yuan Daoxian, and Amelia Chung ...57

Thermal infrared mapping of coastal-aquifer seeps and associations between seeps and coastal habitats by E.A. Raabe and E. Bialkowska-Jelinska ...58

Effects of Lock and Dam Number Six on aquatic ecosystems in Mammoth Cave National Park by Rick Olson ...61

Geochemistry / Contaminant Transport ...63

Storm period fine sediment transport in Logsdon River, Turnhole Spring Basin, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, by Stephen T. Kenworthy ...63

Water quality in selected carbonate aquifers of the United States, 1993-2005, by Bruce D. Lindsey, Marian P. Berndt, Brian G. Katz, Ann F. Ardis, and Kenneth A. Skach ...64

Effect of focused recharge on the geochemistry of Barton Springs, Edwards Aquifer, central Texas during base-flow conditions by Barbara J. Mahler and MaryLynn Musgrove ...66

An overview of the geochemistry of Edwards aquifer ground water in south-central Texas by MaryLynn Musgrove, Lynne S. Fahlquist, and Natalie A. Houston ...67

The role of free-living and attached bacteria in processing contamination in karst aquifers by Tom Byl, Kelly Ray, Chad Walden, Valetta Watson, and Roger Painter ...68

Characterization of bacteria and geochemistry of springs in Nashville, Tennessee, by Patrice Armstrong, Carlton Cobb, Brandon Cobb, Jennifer Stewart-Wright, and Tom Byl ...69

Conduit-matrix interaction and the rate limiting step of contaminant transport in karst by K. J. McCoy, A. M. Shapiro, and M. D. Kozar ...70

Assessing age distribution and contaminant movement in ground water in the contributing recharge area to a public supply well in the karstic Upper Floridan Aquifer by Brian G. Katz, Christy A. Crandall, W. Scott McBride, Patty A. Metz, Marion P. Berndt, and Sandra M. Eberts ...71

Ammonia oxidation by bacteria collected from a karst-bedrock well by Kelly Ray, Roger Painter, and Tom Byl ...72

Wetland removal of nutrients and pollution from a mixed sewer and karst spring system in Nashville, Tennessee, by Carlton Cobb, Jameka Johnson, Brandon Cobb, Patrice Armstrong, Lonnie Sharpe, and Tom Byl ...73

Are karst bedrock aquifers at greater risk from alternative alcohol-fuel mixes compared to regular gasoline? by Baibai Kamara, Loreal Spear, Carlton Cobb, Keyshon Bachus, Roger Painter, Lonnie Sharpe, and Tom Byl ...74

Residence time distribution derived from independent gamma distributions of tracer travel distance and linear velocity by Roger Painter, Tom Byl, and Valetta Watson ...75

Episodic elevated coliform in vadose-zone water within Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, by Rickard S. Toomey, III, Rick Olson, and Bob Ward ...76

Numerical Modeling ...77

Modeling ground-water flow and solute transport in karst with Lattice Boltzmann Methods by Michael C. Sukop, Shadab Anwar, Jeff S. Lee, Kevin J. Cunningham, and Christian D. Langevin ...77

Simulation of turbulent ground-water flow with MODFLOW-2005--Overview by Eve L. Kuniansky, Keith J. Halford, and W. Barclay Shoemaker ...87

Effects of turbulence on hydraulic heads and parameter sensitivities in preferential ground-water flow layers by W. Barclay Shoemaker and Eve L. Kuniansky ...89

Simulation of ground-water flow in a fractured-rock karst aquifer, Shenandoah Valley, Leetown, West Virginia, by Mark D. Kozar and Kurt J. McCoy ...91

Simulations of ground-water flow and particle pathline analysis in the contributing recharge area of a public-supply well in Temple Terrace, Tampa Bay region, Florida, by Christy A. Crandall, Leon J. Kauffman, and Brian G. Katz ...92

Performance evaluation of the MODFLOW-2005 conduit flow process applied to a karst aquifer underlying west-central Florida by Melissa E. Hill, Angel Martin, and Marc T. Stewart ...93

Miscellaneous Topics in Modeling and Geophysics ...99

The value of single-well tracer studies for characterizing karst sites by Tarra M. Beach, Michael W. Bradley, Roger Painter, and Thomas D. Byl ...99

GIS and spatial statistical methods for determining sinkhole potential in Frederick Valley, Maryland, by Katarina Z. Doctor ...100

Geophysical analysis of the Salmon Peak Formation near Amistad Reservoir Dam, Val Verde County, Texas, and Coahuila, Mexico, March 2006, to aid in piezometer placement by Gregory P. Stanton, Wade H. Kress, Andrew P. Teeple, Michael L. Greenslate, and Allan K. Clark ...103

Construction and use of a fractured-rock simulator to test horizontal borehole flow-measuring technologies by E. Randall Bayless ...105

Collection of bathymetric data along two reaches of the Lost River within Bluespring Cavern near Bedford, Lawrence County, Indiana, July 2007 by David C. Lampe and Scott E. Morlock ...106

A multi-tool geophysical and hydrogeological investigation of a karst aquifer system, Cibolo Canyon development area, Bexar County, Texas, by Sachin D. Shah, Bruce D. Smith, Allan K. Clark, and Wade H. Kress ...107

Field Trip Guides ...117

Mammoth Cave National Park Tour, Tuesday evening May 27, 2008, led by Rickard S. Toomey, III, and Rick Olson ...117

Karst underground drainage in and around Mammoth Cave National Park by Cave Research Foundation and Mammoth Cave National Park ...118

Geology of the Mammoth Cave area by Arthur N. Palmer ...119

Guide to the historic route of Mammoth Cave by Arthur N. Palmer ...128

Biospeleology of Mammoth Cave: A briefing paper by Rick Olson ...133

Field trip road log: Karst features of the Mammoth Cave Kentucky Area, Thursday, May 29, 2008, led by Chris Groves and Rick Toomey ...139


Suggested citation: Kuniansky, E.L., 2008, U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023, 142 p. (Available online at

Online copies of the proceedings are available at:

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