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Scientific Investigations Report 2012–5062

Groundwater Simulation and Management Models for the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

Conversion Factors, Datums, and Abbreviations and Acronyms

Conversion Factors

Multiply By To obtain
inch (in.) 2.54 centimeter (cm)
inch (in.) 25.4 millimeter (mm)
foot (ft) 0.3048 meter (m)
mile (mi) 1.609 kilometer (km)
acre 4,047 square meter (m2)
acre 0.4047 hectare (ha)
acre 0.4047 square hectometer (hm2)
acre 0.004047 square kilometer (km2)
square foot (ft2) 929.0 square centimeter (cm2)
square foot (ft2) 0.09290 square meter (m2)
square mile (mi2) 259.0 hectare (ha)
square mile (mi2) 2.590 square kilometer (km2)
gallon (gal) 3.785 liter (L)
gallon (gal) 0.003785 cubic meter (m3)
gallon (gal) 3.785 cubic decimeter (dm3)
cubic foot (ft3) 0.02832 cubic meter (m3)
acre-foot (acre-ft) 1,233 cubic meter (m3)
acre-foot (acre-ft) 0.001233 cubic hectometer (hm3)
Flow rate
gallon per minute (gal/min) 0.0631 Liter per second (L/s)
acre-foot per year (acre-ft/yr) 1,233 cubic meter per year (m3/yr)
acre-foot per year (acre-ft/yr) 0.001233 cubic hectometer per year (hm3/yr)
foot per second (ft/s) 0.3048 meter per second (m/s)
foot per year (ft/yr) 0.3048 Meter per year (m/yr)
cubic foot per second (ft3/s) 0.02832 cubic meter per second (m3/s)
inch per year (in/yr) 25.4 millimeter per year (mm/yr)
Specific capacity
gallon per minute per foot 
[(gal/min)/ft)] 0.2070 liter per second per meter [(L/s)/m]
Hydraulic conductivity
foot per day (ft/d) 0.3048 meter per day (m/d)
foot squared per day (ft2/d) 0.09290 meter squared per day (m2/d)
foot per day per foot [(ft/d)/ft] 1 meter per day per meter

Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) may be converted to degrees Celsius (°C) as follows:


*Transmissivity: The standard unit for transmissivity is cubic foot per day per square foot times foot of aquifer thickness [(ft3/d)/ft2]ft. In this report, the mathematically reduced form, foot squared per day (ft2/d), is used for convenience.


Vertical coordinate information is referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29).

Horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27).

Elevation, as used in this report, refers to distance above the vertical datum.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

AET actual evapotranspiration
CDWR California Department of Water Resources
DRN MODFLOW drain package
ET evapotranspiration
EVT MODFLOW evapotranspiration package
GHB MODFLOW general head boundaries package
GPS global positioning system
HRU hydrologic response unit
KBRA Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement
MODFLOW MODular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater FLOW model
OWRD Oregon Water Resources Department
PET potential evapotranspiration rate
PRMS precipitation-runoff modeling system
SBOT streambed bottom elevation parameter
TID Tulelake Irrigation District
USGS U.S. Geological Survey

First posted May 5, 2012

For additional information contact:
Director, Oregon Water Science Center
U.S. Geological Survey
2130 SW 5th Avenue
Portland, Oregon 97201

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