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Techniques and Methods 6–A21

A Product of the Ground-Water Resources Program
Prepared in Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy

MODFLOW-2005, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model—Documentation of the Multiple-Refined-Areas Capability of Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package

By Steffen W. Mehl and Mary C. Hill

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T&M 6-A21
PDF (439 kB)


This report documents the addition of the multiple-refined-areas capability to shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) and Boundary Flow and Head (BFH) Package of MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model. LGR now provides the capability to simulate ground-water flow by using one or more block-shaped, higher resolution local grids (child model) within a coarser grid (parent model). LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundaries. The ability to have multiple, nonoverlapping areas of refinement is important in situations where there is more than one area of concern within a regional model. In this circumstance, LGR can be used to simulate these distinct areas with higher resolution grids. LGR can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined ground-water systems. The BFH Package can be used to simulate these situations by using either the parent or child models independently.

Version 1.0

Posted August 2007

Suggested citation:

Mehl, S.W., and Hill, M.C., 2007, MODFLOW-2005, The U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model—Documentation of the multiple-refined-areas capability of local grid refinement (LGR) and the boundary flow and head (BFH) package: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A21, 13 p.

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