Water Temperature - Influential Factors, Field Measurement, and Data Presentation

U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations Book 1, Chapter D1

By Herbert H. Stevens, Jr., John F. Ficke, and George F. Smoot

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The Department of the Interior has a basic responsibility for the appraisal, conservation, and efficient utilization of the Nation's natural resources, including water as a resource, as well as water involved in the use and development of other resources. As one of the several Interior agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey's primary function in relation to water is to assess its availability and utility as a national resource for all uses. The U.S. Geological Survey's responsibility for water appraisal includes not only assessments of the location, quantity, and availability of water but also determinations of water quality. Inherent in this responsibility is the need for extensive water-quality studies related to the physical, chemical, and biological adequacy of natural and developed surface-and ground-water supplies. Included, also, is the need for supporting research to increase the effectiveness of these studies.

As part of its mission the Geological Survey is responsible for a large part of water-quality data for rivers, lakes, and ground water that is used by planners, developers, water-quality managers, and pollution-control agencies. A high degree of reliability and standardization of these data is paramount. This manual was prepared to provide accurate and precise procedures for the field measurement of water temperature.

The series of manuals on techniques describes procedures for planning and executing specialized work in water-resources investigations. The material is grouped under major subject headings called books and is further subdivided into sections and chapters. Book 1 is on the collection of water data by direct measurement. Section D is on water quality.

The unit of publication, the chapter, is limited to a narrow field of subject matter. This format permits flexibility in revision and publication as the need arises. "Water Temperature-Influential Factors, Field Measurement, and Data Presentation" is the first chapter to be published under Section D of Book 1. The chapter number includes the letter of the section.

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