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Water Temperature - Influential Factors, Field Measurement, and Data Presentation

U.S. Geological Survey, Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations Book 1, Chapter D1

By Herbert H. Stevens, Jr., John F. Ficke, and George F. Smoot


Table of Contents

Preface

Abstract

Introduction

Purposes of water-temperature measurements

Water use and stream standards

Applications in ground-water hydrology

Temperature scales and units of measurement

Part 1. Influential factors

Influence on water quality

Physical

Chemical

Biological

Ambient relationships

Temporal and spatial variations

Streams

Lakes and reservoirs

Estuaries

Ground water

Part 2. Field measurement

Instruments

Temperature sensors

Liquid-in-glass

Bimetallic

Filled-system

Thermocouple

Resistance bulb

Others

Thermometers

Nonrecording thermometers

Portable recording thermometers

Fixed-installation recording thermometers

Operation, maintenance, and calibration

Field applications and procedures

Streams

Objectives and accuracy requirements

Selection of temperature measuring system

Site selection

Sensor location

Special procedures

Lakes and reservoirs

Objectives and accuracy requirements

Selection of temperature measuring system

Site selection

Sensor location

Special procedures

Estuaries

Objectives and accuracy requirements

Selection of temperature measuring system

Site selection

Sensor location

Special procedures

Ground water

Objectives and accuracy requirements

Selection of temperature

Site selection

Sensor location

Special procedures

Part 3. Data presentation

Reduction and correction

Correcting instrument error

Data reduction

Presentation and publication

What to publish

Tabular format

Graphical

References cited



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